60-Second Civics

Monday, January 25
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About the Podcast: 60-Second Civics is a daily podcast that provides a quick and convenient way for listeners to learn about our nation’s government, the Constitution, and our history. The podcast explores themes related to civics and government, the constitutional issues behind the headlines, and the people and ideas that formed our nation’s history and government.

60-Second Civics is produced by the Center for Civic Education. The show's content is primarily derived from the Center’s education for democracy curricula, including We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution, Foundations of Democracy, and Elements of Democracy.

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Music:
The theme music for 60-Second Civics is provided by Cheryl B. Engelhardt. You can find her online at cbemusic.com. The song featured on the podcast is Cheryl B. Engelhardt's "Complacent," which you purchase on iTunes, along with all of Cheryl's music.


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60-Second Civics: Episode 4226, How Constituents Contribute to Legislation: How Congress Works, Part 20
Constituents, the people represented by an elected official, are valuable sources of ideas for legislation. Constituents influence legislation by responding to opinion polls and contacting members of Congress, among other methods. Lobbying is another method of trying to affect legislation. These are typically organized efforts to influence legislators and other public officials to propose or modify legislation or regulations.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4225, The Executive Branch as a Source of Legislation: How Congress Works, Part 19
Congress and the executive branch normally work closely together in creating legislation. The president will often lay out his or her legislative agenda in the State of the Union address. Executive agencies also regularly provide legislative proposals.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4224, Ideas for Legislation: How Congress Works, Part 18
Members of Congress have many reasons for initiating legislation, including in response to problems and promises made to constituents. The Congressional Research Service and the Congressional Budget Office provide information that inform legislation.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4223, Congress and Individual Rights: How Congress Works, Part 17
Today we learn about the role of Congress in protecting individual rights.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4222, Persistence and Compromise Is the Key to Lawmaking: How Congress Works, Part 16
It's tough work getting a bill through Congress. At each stage there is a need to gain support of the majority, whether it is in a committee or in the House or Senate chambers. The bill must also normally have the support of the president.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4221, How a Bill Becomes a Law: How Congress Works, Part 15
What happens when the House and Senate versions differ? Find out on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4220, The Committee Vote: How Congress Works, Part 14
Bills proposed in Congress usually go to a committee, which then modifies the bill and makes recommendations for amendments, if needed. The bill might receive a floor vote, then goes to a committee in the other chamber before possible amendment and another vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4219, Mark-up Sessions: How Congress Works, Part 13
How do congressional committees work? Find out on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4218, Bills and Resolutions: How Congress Works, Part 12
Before it can become a law, a bill has to introduced by the House or the Senate. Revenue bills must originate in the House. The bill then gets assigned to one or more committees, which will then hold hearings. These are usually open to the public. Experts present testimony so that members of Congress can evaluate the merits of the bill.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4217, Introducing a Bill: How Congress Works, Part 11
Today on the podcast: simple, joint, and concurrent resolutions.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4216, President Pro Tempore: How Congress Works, Part 10
Today we learn about the president pro tempore of the Senate and the majority whip of the House.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4215, Senate Leadership: How Congress Works, Part 9
Senators were originally considered to be ambassadors of their states rather than representatives of the people in the states. That all changed in 1913 with the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4214, Office of Speaker in England and America: How Congress Works, Part 8
Today we contrast the speaker of the House of Commons with that of the House of Representatives.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4213, Leadership in the House vs. the Senate: How Congress Works, Part 7
The House of Representatives and Senate have different leadership structures. The House chooses its own Speaker, but the Constitution mandates that the vice president is the president of the Senate. The Senate has a majority and a minority leader.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4212, A Powerful Speaker of the House: How Congress Works, Part
The Speaker of the House of Representatives is a powerful position. The House selects its own Speaker, which explains why the Speaker is of the same political party as the majority party in the House.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4211, Influence of Political Parties on Congress: How Congress Works, Part 5
Political parties have considerable influence in Congress. Party control traditionally has been stronger in the House than in the Senate.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4210, Senate Rules: How Congress Works, Part 4
The Senate has rules, including the filibuster. Senate rules are treated more informally than in the House.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4209, Rules for House Committees: How Congress Works, Part 3
Rules, rules, rules. Your mom has them, your school has them, even the House of Representatives has them.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4208, The Purpose of Congressional Committees: How Congress Works, Part 2
The careful, deliberative work of Congress often occurs during committee meetings.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4207, Congressional Committees: How Congress Works, Part 1
Both the House and Senate form committees that carefully examine proposed legislation and hear a variety of perspectives. Congress also holds oversight hearings to examine how the executive branch carries out laws enacted by Congress. This is the first episode in our series on how Congress performs its functions in the American constitutional system.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4206, Helping the Public: The Power of the Congress, Part 16
Members of Congress and their staffers help the public in a variety of ways. Casework, for example, involves helping constituents solve problems that they have encountered with the federal government.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4205, Communication with Constituents: The Power of the Congress, Part 15
On today's episode, we learn about how members of Congress communicate with their constituents

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4204, Delegate vs. Trustee Theory of Representation: The Power of the Congress, Part 14
Today on the podcast: the delegate vs. trustee theory of representation

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4203, The Size of Congress: The Power of the Congress, Part 13
Each member of the House of Representatives represents an average of more than 700,000 people. Among the world's legislatures, only India has larger constituencies.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4202, 535 Legislators: The Power of the Congress, Part 12
Did you know that the Constitution originally gave each state legislature authority to decide who would serve as that state's senators? This changed in 1913 with the Seventeenth Amendment. Today there are 435 voting members of the House of Representatives and 100 Senators.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4201, Legislative Districts: The Power of the Congress, Part 11
What can you do if you don't like the way your congressional district is drawn? Find out on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4200, Congress Represents the People and the States: The Power of the Congress, Part 1
Both the people and the states have a voice in Congress

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4199, Inherent Powers: The Power of the Congress, Part 9
The power to conduct investigations and compel testimony goes back to Parliament and the colonial legislatures.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4198, Enforcement Powers: The Power of the Congress, Part 8
The enforcement powers of Congress have been used to enact sweeping civil rights and voting rights laws.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4197, Necessary and Proper: The Power of the Congress, Part 7
The necessary and proper clause was controversial from the start. Today we learn about some of the debates about this important clause of the Constitution between Federalists and Anti-Federalists.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4196, Congress and Administrative Agencies: The Power of the Congress, Part 6
Congress can both create and oversee administrative agencies. This is one of the implied powers of Congress.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4195, The Implied Powers: The Power of the Congress, Part 5
Today on 60-Second Civics, we learn about the implied powers of Congress and explore its historical roots in a seminal Supreme Court case.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4194, More Enumerated Powers of Congress: The Power of the Congress, Part 4
Today on the podcast, we explore several of the enumerated powers of Congress.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4193, Enumerated Powers of Congress: The Power of the Congress, Part 3
The Constitution lists many specific powers that Congress has. These are called enumerated powers or express powers.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4192, How the Bill of Rights Limits Congress: The Power of the Congress, Part 2
On today's episode, learn two ways that the Bill of Rights limits Congress.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4191, How the Framers Limited the Power of Congress: The Power of the Congress, Part 1
We kick off our series on Congress by talking about both the power of Congress and limitations on this power. The Framers of the Constitution mistrusted concentrations of power in government, so they devised several ways to limit the power of Congress.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4190, The President and America's Reputation: The Power of the Presidency, Part 28
Why is the president the preeminent figure in domestic and international politics? Find out on today's episode.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4189, Congress as Electoral College Tiebreaker: The Power of the Presidency, Part 2
What happens if there is a tie in the Electoral College? Find out on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4188, The Role of the Electoral College: The Power of the Presidency, Part 26
Did you know that it takes 270 electoral votes to win the presidency? We explain the role of the Electoral College on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4187, Prime Minister vs. President: The Power of the Presidency, Part 24
There are important differences between Parliament and Congress, just as there are important differences between the powers and limitations on an American president and those on a British prime minister. Learn what these are on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4186, Prime Minister vs. President: The Power of the Presidency, Part 2
How does the prime minister of the United Kingdom differ from the American president? Find out on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4185, Congress and the Supreme Court Limit the President: The Power of the Presidency, Part 23
Congress, the Supreme Court, and public opinion limit the power of the president. Find out how on today's 60-Second Civics podcast

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4184, Congress Can Limit a President's Power: The Power of the Presidency, Part 22
Congress has a number of ways to limit the power of presidents. For example, Congress can refuse to ratify treaties and decline to confirm presidential nominees. Congress can even refuse to fund the president's programs or abolish agencies.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4183, Check and Balances on the President: The Power of the Presidency, Part 21
The president's power is limited by a few different methods. For example, an amendment to the Constitution limits the president to two elected terms in office. Another powerful check on the president's power is Congress. Learn about more of the ways the president's powers are limited on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4182, Executive Orders: The Power of the Presidency, Part 20
Why have executive orders increased in recent years? Find out on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4181, Two Reasons for the Growth of Executive Power: The Power of the Presidency, Part 19
The president recommends legislation to Congress. The executive branch also plays an important role in determining federal regulations and elaborating laws. These factors have led to the growth of executive power.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4180, The Balance of Power: The Power of the Presidency, Part 18
ver time, power has flowed between Congress and the executive branch.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4179, Congress and the Court Reign in the President: The Power of the Presidency, Part 17
Can Congress and the Supreme Court reign in the power of the president? You bet.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4178, Wars, Emergencies, and FDR: The Power of the Presidency, Part 15
What does the Constitution say about presidential powers during emergencies or crisis? The answer may surprise you.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4177, Wars, Emergencies, and FDR: The Power of the Presidency, Part 15
With the support of Congress, FDR responded to the multiple crises that occurred during his administration.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4176, Diplomat in Chief: The Power of the Presidency, Part 14
How is the president America's diplomat in chief? Find out on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4175, The President and Treaties: The Power of the Presidency, Part 13
The president can make treaties with the approval of two-thirds of the Senate.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4174, The President as Commander in Chief: The Power of the Presidency, Part 12
The president is commander in chief, but only Congress can declare war. Congress has declared war only five times in the nation's history.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4173, The President and Foreign Affairs: The Power of the Presidency, Part 11
The president's power is at its greatest when it comes to foreign affairs.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4172, The President As Leader of Foreign Policy: The Power of the Presidency, Part 10
The president has a number of important powers, but the president's powers are limited in important ways.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4171, Franklin D. Roosevelt: The Power of the Presidency, Part 9
Find out why Franklin D. Roosevelt was arguably the most influential president of the 20th century.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4170, Lincoln, Roosevelt, and Wilson: The Power of the Presidency, Part 8
Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson each contributed to the growth of presidential power.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4169, Jefferson and the Use of Presidential Power: The Power of the Presidency, Part 7
Thomas Jefferson sought to be a model of republican simplicity.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4168, The Rise of Presidential Power: The Power of the Presidency, Part 6
Some scholars trace the rise of the powerful modern presidency to Andrew Jackson, who expanded the use of the veto and appealed directly to the public to support his position on the recharter of the Second Bank of the United States.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4167, A Strong President, But Not Too Strong: The Power of the Presidency, Part 5
The Framers of the Constitution wanted the president to be strong, but not too strong

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4166, Above Partisan Politics? The Power of the Presidency, Part 4
The Framers of the Constitution envisioned the president as being above partisan politics. They wanted the president to be a person who had earned the esteem and confidence of the entire nation. This was one of the purposes of the Electoral College.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4165, A President's Inherent Powers: The Power of the Presidency, Part 3
Today: some controversial inherent powers of presidents.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 2, A Framework for Presidential Power: The Power of the Presidency, Part 2
Today we kick off a brief series on the power of the presidency.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4164, A Framework for Presidential Power: The Power of the Presidency, Part 2
Justice Robert Jackson's concurring opinion in Youngstown Sheet and Tube v. Sawyer (1952) sets forth a framework that is widely used to assess presidential power.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4163, Presidential Powers: The Power of the Presidency, Part 1
Today we kick off a brief series on the power of the presidency.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4162, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 43: Referendum and Recall
On today's podcast we learn about two political processes that directly involve the people: referendums and recall elections.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4161, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 42: Ballot Initiatives
There are two types of ballot initiatives: direct and indirect. Learn the difference on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4160, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 41: Gerrymandering
The term "gerrymandering" is named after a delegate to the Philadelphia Convention, Governor Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts. His political party drew a partisan electoral district designed to give them victory. A newspaper editor pinned the blame on Gerry, naming the salamander-shaped district "gerrymander."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4159, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 40: One Person, One Vote
The principle of "one person, one vote" means that each congressional district in a state must have a roughly equal population as those in other states. This applies only the House, however. The Senate is based on equal representation, with each state receiving two senators.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4158, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 39: The Popular Vote and the Electoral Vote
The Electoral College was devised as a compromise by the Framers of the Constitution at the Constitutional Convention of 1787. This complicated system, where the winner of the popular vote in most states get all the electoral votes of the state, means that the winner of the popular vote does not always win the presidency.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4157, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 38: How the Electoral College Works
The Electoral College might seem like a complicated method of choosing a president, but on this episode of 60-Second Civics, we'll explain how it works.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4156, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 37: Why We Have the Electoral College
Although the Framers of the Constitution considered having the president be directly elected by the people, they instead created the Electoral College.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4155, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 36: The Importance of a Peaceful Transition of Power
Why does it matter that we have a peaceful transition of power in a democracy? We'll hear from David Levine, an Elections Integrity Fellow from the bipartisan Alliance for Securing Democracy. This is the final episode in our series on election security with David Levine. Thank you, David, for helping us better understand our electoral system!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4154, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 35: Verifying the Vote with David Levine
What do elections officials do on the day after the election? We'll find out from David Levine, an Elections Integrity Fellow from the bipartisan Alliance for Securing Democracy.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4153, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 34: How the Votes are Counted with David Levine
Happy Election Day! On today's podcast, David Levine, an Elections Integrity Fellow from the bipartisan Alliance for Securing Democracy, explains what elections officials do on Election Day.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4152, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 33: How Voting Works with David Levine
Today we are joined once again by David Levine, an Elections Integrity Fellow from the bipartisan Alliance for Securing Democracy. David explains how voting actually works in the United States.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4151, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 32: Election Security with David Levine
Today we are joined by a very special guest, David Levine, who is an Elections Integrity Fellow from the bipartisan Alliance for Securing Democracy. David talks about election security, elections officials, signature verification, and what to do if there are any problems casting your vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4150, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 31: Voting, Registration, and Participation
The states make many decisions regarding voting rights, and most states require citizens to register before voting. Although voter turnout has surged in the days leading up to the 2020 presidential election, in recent years there has been a steady decline in voter turnout for elections.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4149, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 30: International Context of Twenty-sixth Amendment
Most Western democracies lowered the voting age to eighteen in the 1970s. Some have even lowered it to sixteen. But a few still retain a minimum voting age of twenty-one.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4148, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 29: Shootings Gave Twenty-sixth Amendment Renewed Urgency
Two incidents in 1970 galvanized the movement to lower the voting age to eighteen: the Kent State and Jackson State shootings of anti-war demonstrators.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4147, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 28: "Old Enough to Fight, Old Enough to Vote"
"Old enough to fight, old enough to vote" originated during World War II. The argument has resonance with the Declaration of Independence, which says, "the just powers of government are derived from the consent of the governed.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4146, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 27: Cultural Context of the Twenty-sixth Amendment
The countercultural movement of the 1960s and the Vietnam War provided the cultural context to the movement to lower the voting age to 18.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4145, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 26: Oregon v. Mitchell
The Oregon v. Mitchell Supreme Court case in 1970 gave added motivation for supporters of lowering the voting age to push for a constitutional amendment to reduce the national voting age to 18.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4144, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 25: Vietnam and the Twenty-sixth Amendment
The Vietnam War motivated the states to take up the ratification process for the Twenty-sixth Amendment with a sense of urgency.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4143, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 24: The Twenty-sixth Amendment
The Twenty-sixth Amendment mandates that federal and state legislatures not interfere with the right to vote of citizens eighteen years of age or older in federal, state, and local elections.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4142, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 23: Shelby County v. Holder
On today's podcast we learn how Shelby County v. Holder changed the Voting Rights Act.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4141, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 22: The Voting Rights Act of 1965
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a step in the right direction, but it did not protect voting rights. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 prohibits discrimination based on race, eliminates literacy tests, poll taxes, and discriminatory voter registration practices. It also requires voting materials and assistance in appropriate languages in places with significant numbers of voters who do not speak English.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4140, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 21: Prelude to the Voting Rights Act
Both the the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and the Civil Rights Act of 1960 were meant to eliminate interference with the right to vote. Both of the acts paved the way for the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4139, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 20: Removing Obstacles to Native American Voting
Native Americans were often deprived of their right to vote until Congress took action.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4138, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 19: Indian Citizenship Act of 1924
In several states, Native Americans are viewed as an increasingly important voting bloc. Only in 1924 did the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 extend the right to Native Americans, but the states continued to block Native access to the polls until at least 1965.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4137, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 18: Native American Citizenship and Voting
The Framers considered Native Americans to be members of their tribes, not citizens of the United States, and were not allowed to vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4136, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 17: The Nineteenth Amendment
As the United States entered World War I, pressure to recognize the right of women to vote increased. After the war, women launched a national campaign that included huge parades, demonstrations, picketing, and civil disobedience in Washington, D.C. The Nineteenth Amendment was finally adopted in 1920.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4135, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 16: The Slow March of Women's Suffrage
Women in the United States gained the right to vote only in small increments. Plenty of excuses were offered for not recognizing the right of women to vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4134, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 15: State Voting Rights for Women
In 1869 Wyoming, while still a territory, gave women the right to vote. By 1918 more than half the states had enfranchised women.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4133, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 14: Equal Voting Rights for Women
The road to winning the right to vote for women was long, and suffragists faced many setbacks.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4132, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 13: Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
During the middle years of the nineteenth century the struggle for freedom and equality for African Americans was closely linked to the campaign for woman suffrage. Many abolitionists worked for woman suffrage, just as many women worked to end slavery.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4131, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 12: Literacy Tests
Literacy tests were designed to disenfranchise African American voters. They did not disappear entirely until 1970.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4130, 60-Second Civics, Episode 4130: October 11, 2020
Poll taxes were meant to keep the poor and minorities from voting. The Twenty-Fourth Amendment ended poll taxes in 1964.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4129, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 10: Civil Rights Act of 1866
Until discriminatory laws and Supreme Court rulings took effect, millions of African Americans were added to the voting rolls, and some were elected to public office.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4128, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 9: The Fifteenth Amendment
In theory, the Fifteenth Amendment granted the right to vote to African American men. But discriminatory laws, physical intimidation, and economic reprisals kept African Americans from exercising that right.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4127, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 8: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Mexican American men faced discrimination and violence in Texas when they tried to exercise their right to vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4126, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 7: Dorr Rebellion
Rhode Island was the only state after 1840 that did not have universal enfranchisement of white men. So, Thomas Wilson Dorr convened a "People's Convention" to draft a new state constitution that allowed all white men to vote. This led to a brief civil war in the state.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4125, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 6: Voting Reform in the Early 1800s
Voting reform took place slowly after 1790, with the property requirement slowly being phased out.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4124, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 5: Property Requirements
Suffrage in the original thirteen states expanded greatly after 1790 and many of the original states eliminated property requirements gradually over the nineteenth century, but they often required payment of taxes and had residency requirements.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4123, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 4: Voting and Property
Thomas Paine, with his characteristically sharp wit, pointed out some problems with the property requirement for voting.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4122, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 3: Enfranchisement and Disenfranchisement
Who was allowed to vote during the early years of the American republic? It depended on where you lived.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4121, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 2: Voting in the Colonies
What legacy of Greek and Roman democracy did the colonists inherit? Find out on today's episode.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4120, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 1: The Expansion of Suffrage
How did the right to vote gradually expand in the United States? Find out on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4119, Prohibition Changed American Society
Prohibition was an agent of profound social change.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4118, The Prohibition Era Begins
The Eighteenth Amendment launched an era known as Prohibition and the birth of a new industry.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4117, The Prohibition Era Begins
The Eighteenth Amendment launched an era known as Prohibition and the birth of a new industry.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4116, The Prohibition Era
The Prohibition era began just as World War I was drawing to a close. Not every American soldier was happy about returning to a dry country.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4115, The Eighteenth Amendment
The Eighteenth Amendment, which was ratified in January 1919, inaugurated the era of Prohibition by outlawing the "manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors" in the United States.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4114, International Abolition of Slavery
The international movement to abolish the slave trade and the practice of slavery began in Britain and elsewhere in Europe in the eighteenth century.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4113, Northern Reaction to the Emancipation Proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation, signed by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, only applied to the Confederacy and did not actually free most slaves in the South, but it did have a powerful symbolic effect and increased diplomatic support for the Union.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4112, The Emancipation Proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation had two parts. The first stated that enslaved people in any of the Confederate states that did not return to the Union by January 1863 would be freed. The second part freed all enslaved people held in the rebellious states, at least in theory.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4111, Abolitionists, Free Soilers, and Emancipation
At the outset of the Civil War, public opinion in the North was generally unfavorable to immediate abolition.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4110, "If Slavery Is Not Wrong, Nothing Is Wrong"
Abraham Lincoln's attitude to the slavery issue was complex. We'll learn why on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4109, The Corwin Amendment
The Corwin Amendment was created in order to avoid the Civil War. It would have outlawed future amendments that abolished slavery. However, the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter began the Civil War, and the amendment was never ratified. Instead, in 1864 Abraham Lincoln began lobby for passage an amendment to abolish slavery.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4108, Abolition Movements in the United States
A social culture of reform in pre-Civil War America was the fertile soil in which a variety of movements against slavery grew.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4107, Early Anti-Slavery Movements in America
Several movements to abolish slavery were formed during the Revolutionary era.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4106, Slavery Contradicted America's Founding Principles
Slavery was in flat contradiction to the founding principles and animating spirit of the American republic born on July 4, 1776.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4105, Economic Context of the Civil War
When the Civil War erupted in 1861, differences between the economies of North and South were directly relevant to the slavery issue.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4104, The Constitution on Slavery
On today's podcast, we learn about three compromises on slavery that were added to the Constitution to get the support of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4103, Slavery and the Start of the Civil War
On today's podcast, we examine the causes of the Civil War.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4102, The Civil War Amendments
Today we begin a brief series examining the Civil War Amendments. These are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4101, Freedom of the Press around the World
Starting in the nineteenth century, the people of many nations began demanding the liberal freedoms associated with democracy.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4100, The English Roots of American Freedom of the Press
The roots of freedom of the press in America are found in England.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4099, Freedom of the Press and New Forms of Communication
Americans hold a deep respect for freedom of the press and free expression.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4098, The Growing Power of Media
Americans have been avidly consuming news since the founding period, but news outlets haven't always been tremendously profitable.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4097, The Importance of Freedom of the Press in the Early Republic
Freedom of the press has been important to Americans since the early republic.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4096, Prior Restraint
How easy is it for the government to keep the news media from publishing sensitive government information? Find out on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4095, The Alien and Sedition Acts
The Alien and Sedition Acts were passed under the administration of Federalist president John Adams. They outraged Republicans, led by Thomas Jefferson, and contributed to Jefferson's victory in the presidential election of 1800.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4094, The Alien and Sedition Acts
The Alien and Sedition Acts were passed under the administration of Federalist president John Adams. They outraged Republicans, led by Thomas Jefferson, and contributed to Jefferson's victory in the presidential election of 1800.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4093, Libel vs. Slander
On today's podcast, learn about the difference between libel and slander.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4092, The Zenger Case
Under British colonial rule in America, criticizing the government was known as seditious libel, and it was illegal. But in the case of John Peter Zenger, the jury was on his side.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4091, Freedom of the Press, an Introduction
Today we begin a brief series on freedom of the press.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4090, A Just and a Lasting Peace
In Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address, Lincoln urged the nation to heal its wounds. He also expressed his hope that the nation may achieve a "just and lasting peace."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4089, Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address
Abraham Lincoln's elegant words in the Gettysburg Address signify his enduring legacy to the people of America.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4088, Abraham Lincoln and America's Founding Principles
Abraham Lincoln believed that the Constitution was meant to fulfill the ideas of equality, liberty, and government by consent of the people contained in the Declaration of Independence.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4087, The Thirteenth Amendment
Abraham Lincoln was opposed to slavery, but did not live to see the Thirteenth Amendment ratified.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4086, The Emancipation Proclamation
Learn about the Emancipation Proclamation on today's 60-Second Civics.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4085, Abraham Lincoln on Slavery
Although rightly remembered as the president who issued the Emancipation Proclamation and won the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln did not intend to abolish slavery at the outset of the war.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4084, Lincoln Takes Strong Action against the Rebellion
During the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus in order to better fight the rebellion. But not everything went Lincoln's way.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4083, Suspending the Writ of Habeas Corpus During the Civil War
Chief Justice Roger B. Taney rules against Abraham Lincoln's aggressive use of war powers

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4082, The Prize Cases
The Prize Cases posed a constitutional test of Abraham Lincoln's use of war powers during an emergency.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4081, Congress Approves Lincoln's Actions
Critics accused Abraham Lincoln of trampling on the Constitution, but he thought his actions were needed to save both the Union and the Constitution.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4080, Lincoln Takes Immediate Action Against the Confederacy
Abraham Lincoln acted swiftly when the Civil War began, but some people thought he had gone too far.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4079, The Civil War Begins
Abraham Lincoln faced a tough first year in office: secession and war plagued the nation.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4078, Abraham Lincoln Elected President
Abraham Lincoln lost his campaign for the Senate, but won the presidency two years later.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4077, Abraham Lincoln Opposes the Kansas-Nebraska Act
The Kansas-Nebraska Act brought Abraham Lincoln back into politics and pushed the country closer to civil war.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4076, Abraham Lincoln Begins His Political Career
Despite having less than one year of formal education, Abraham Lincoln became a lawyer and launched his political career.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4075, Abraham Lincoln's Early Life
Today we kick off a brief series on Abraham Lincoln.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4074, Virginia Ratifies the Constitution
Despite George Mason's objections, Virginia ratified the Constitution.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4073, Virginia Ratifies the Constitution
Despite George Mason's objections, Virginia ratified the Constitution.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4072, George Mason at the Virginia Ratification Convention
George Mason made one fateful error at the Virginia Ratification Convention.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4071, George Mason Refuses to Sign the Constitution
George Mason refused to sign the Constitution because it did not contain a bill of rights.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4070, George Mason Proposes the Bill of Rights
When George Mason proposed that a bill of rights be added to the Constitution, not a single state delegation to the Philadelphia Convention voted in favor of Mason's motion. As a result, Mason refused to sign the Constitution.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4069, Bernard Bailyn on Slavery in the Founding Period
Should we hold America's founders to account for not outlawing slavery? We'll learn about one historian's views on the subject on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4068, The New York Manumission Society
Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and William Livingston were outspoken opponents of slavery and were founding members of the New York Society for Promoting the Manumission of Slaves.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4067, Slavery in the North
Slavery was not confined to the South. Even in the late 1790s, one in five New York City households kept domestic slaves.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4066, Providence Punishes National Sins by National Calamities
George Mason's aversion to slavery and his vigorous condemnation of the institution remained a constant throughout his life. Even so, Mason never freed the people he enslaved.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4065, George Mason's Attack on Slavery
George Mason held slaves, but nevertheless condemned the practice.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4064, Jefferson and Madison on Slavery
Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, George Mason and other Founders agonized over slavery and what to do to bring about its end.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4063, Mason and Washington on Slavery
Learn about two Founders' views on slavery on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4062, Frequent Recurrence to Fundamental Principles
The Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776 was extremely influential.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4061, Important Principles in the Virginia Declaration of Rights
The Virginia Declaration of Rights laid out a number of important principles of American government.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4060, The Virginia Declaration of Rights
Among the important principles set forth in the Virginia Declaration of rights is that all power is derived from the people and that government officials are their trustees and servants.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4059, The Most Influential Constitutional Document in American History
George Mason was the primary author of the Virginia Declaration of Rights and its "Constitution and Form of Government." The Virginia Declaration of Rights influenced the Declaration of Independence, state constitutions, and the Bill of Rights

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4058, The Fairfax Resolves
George Mason, America's "forgotten founder," wrote the famous Fairfax Resolves in 1774, which were intended, as George Washington explained, to "defend our Constitutional Rights" and to set forth our fundamental principles.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4057, George Mason's Early Life
Like many of America's founders, George Mason had many good attributes. Nevertheless, his legacy is tarnished by the fact that was a slaveholder, as were George Washington, James Madison, and Thomas Jefferson.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4056, George Mason, the Reluctant Statesman
Most Americans know very little about George Mason, who was instrumental in getting the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution by the First Congress in 1791.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4055, George Mason, America's Forgotten Founder
George Mason was a highly influential Virginian who had a "profound understanding of republican government," and yet he remains largely unknown to the American public. Find out about America's "Forgotten Founder" over the next several episodes of 60-Second Civics.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4054, George Washington's Rules of Civility
Before he reached the age of sixteen, George Washington wrote down one hundred and ten "Rules of Civility and Decent Behaviour in Company and Conversation."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4053, George Washington's Views on Slavery
George Washington owned slaves and took steps to return slaves who escaped. Nevertheless, he came to reject slavery, both for the human suffering it caused and on principle.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4052, George Washington Warns Against Party and Faction
George Washington believed in the virtues of nonpartisan government, in which patriotic citizens of different views would be willing to serve together.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4051, How George Washington Established the Authority of the Presidency
George Washington's vigorous policies established the president as an energetic leader, not a ceremonial figurehead.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4050, George Washington Relied on the Advice of Others
As president, George Washington understood his own limitations and was not reluctant to rely upon the counsel of others.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4049, George Washington as President
As president, George Washington demonstrated the value of a strong executive in the hands of a trustworthy person.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4048, George Washington, the Reluctant President
Far from being eager for power as president, George Washington likened his feelings on once again taking up the burdens of public service to "those of a culprit who is going to the place of his execution."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4047, A Strong Executive
George Washington did not participate in the public debates over ratification, although his support was widely known and had a strong influence.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4046, Washington's Support for Civilian Control of Government
George Washington strongly supported the principle that the military is subordinate to civilian government.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4045, Washington's Support for Civilian Control of Government
George Washington strongly supported the principle that the military is subordinate to civilian government.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4044, The Newburgh Conspiracy
Late in the Revolutionary War, a group of officers planned to march on Congress, demanding their pay. George Washington deftly confronted the officers and thwarted their plans.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4043, George Washington the Soldier
George Washington was a courageous and decisive soldier before and during the American Revolution. After independence was secured in 1783, Washington appeared before Congress and publicly resigned his military position, reinforcing the idea of civilian control of American government.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4042, George Washington's Early Life
Today we begin a short series on George Washington, who was perhaps the most influential leader in the creation of the American nation.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4041, James Madison and the Bill of Rights
Although originally opposed to a Bill of Rights, James Madison became its strongest proponent

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4040, Madison Supports Freedom of Religion in Virginia
James Madison was a strong advocate for religious freedom and opposed the establishment of the Anglican church as a state-supported religion in Virginia.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4039, James Madison as a Champion for Religious Freedom
James Madison was a champion of religious freedom, believing that official religions were wrong because such a policy discriminated against the non-favored religions.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4038, James Madison's Fears About Slavery
James Madison was a slaveholder. Nevertheless, he denounced slavery as harmful for both enslaved people and those who held slaves.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4037, James Madison on Slavery
James Madison remained persistent critic of slavery throughout his public career. Nevertheless, benefited from slave labor all his life.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4036, James Madison's Evolving Opinion of Political Parties
James Madison was originally opposed to political parties, which he called factions, but changed his views. Learn how he later justified political parties on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4035, Mr. Madison's Party
James Madison was originally opposed to political parties. That all changed when he decided to organize opposition to Alexander Hamilton's plans for the country.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4034, James Madison on Partisan Politics
James Madison was not a huge fan of political parties. Find out why on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4033, If Men Were Angels, No Government Would Be Needed
Acknowledging that if "men were angels" no government would be needed, James Madison argued that any government "administered by men over men" must be so constituted so as to control itself as well as the governed.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4032, James Madison's Federalist Essays
James Madison's Federalist essays rank among the best political thought ever produced.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4031, James Madison's Federalist Essays
James Madison's Federalist essays rank among the best political thought ever produced.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4030, James Madison, the Convention's Most Active Delegate
James Madison played a very active role in the Philadelphia Convention of 1787, which drafted the Constitution.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4029, James Madison's Views Did Not Always Prevail
Despite being known as the Father of the Constitution, James Madison's views did not always prevail at the Philadelphia Convention.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4028, James Madison Drafts the Virginia Plan
James Madison's Virginia Plan determined in large measure the direction the Philadelphia Convention would take.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4027, James Madison, Scholar and Politician
Despite the fact that James Madison was a small, slightly built and shy man with a quiet voice, he make a big impression on the Philadelpha Convention of 1787, later becoming known as the "Father of the Constitution."

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