60-Second Civics

Thursday, April 22
   Daily civics quiz
Which of the following is NOT one of the five arguments for free expression presented in today's podcast?

 
 
 
 

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About the Podcast: 60-Second Civics is a daily podcast that provides a quick and convenient way for listeners to learn about our nation’s government, the Constitution, and our history. The podcast explores themes related to civics and government, the constitutional issues behind the headlines, and the people and ideas that formed our nation’s history and government.

60-Second Civics is produced by the Center for Civic Education. The show's content is primarily derived from the Center’s education for democracy curricula, including We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution, Foundations of Democracy, and Elements of Democracy.

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Music:
The theme music for 60-Second Civics is provided by Cheryl B. Engelhardt. You can find her online at cbemusic.com. The song featured on the podcast is Cheryl B. Engelhardt's "Complacent," which you purchase on iTunes, along with all of Cheryl's music.


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60-Second Civics: Episode 4313, How the Constitution Protects Rights: Rights, Part 12
In addition to those rights protected in the first ten amendments, known as the Bill of Rights, the body of the U.S. Constitution and subsequent amendments also protect many rights.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4312, Rights and the Third Amendment: Rights, Part 11
The Third Amendment was written in response to the Quartering Act of 1765, which was a British law authorizing colonial governors to requisition certain buildings, including parts of people's homes, for housing British troops.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4311, Rights and the Second Amendment: Rights, Part 10
Today we explain how the Second Amendment has been interpreted by the courts. The Second Amendment is a good example of both positive and negative rights in the Bill of Rights. Positive rights require government to act in specified ways, whereas negative rights restrict government action.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4310, Positive vs. Negative Rights: Rights, Part 9
Positive rights require government to act in specified ways, but negative rights restrict government action.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4309, Economic and Political Rights
Economic rights are associated with ownership. Examples include choosing the work one wants to do, acquiring and disposing of property, entering into contracts. Political rights address political participation, such as voting and supporting particular candidates for office.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4308, Personal Rights: Rights, Part 7
The idea that humans are autonomous, self-governing individuals with fundamental rights is central to natural rights philosophy.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4307, What Are Rights?: Rights, Part 6
Rights may be held by individuals, classes or categories of individuals, or institutions. The emphasis on the rights of individuals is reflected in natural rights philosophy, exemplified in the Declaration of Independence.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4306, All States Have Bills of Rights: Rights, Part 5
Each state adopted a constitution after the Declaration of Independence was issued. Today, the constitutions of all fifty states, as well as the U.S. Constitution, contain bills or declarations of rights.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4305, Limits on Government in the Virginia Declaration of Rights: Rights, Part 4
The Virginia Declaration of Rights described how representative government should be organized, limited the power of government, and informed the creation of our Bill of Rights.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4304, The Virginia Declaration of Rights: Rights, Part 3
Virginia was the first state to include a bill of rights in its constitution.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4303, Why Have a Bill of Rights?: Rights, Part 2
The English Bill of Rights of 1689 was passed by Parliament, which means that Parliament can change it at any time. The American Bill of Rights, in contrast, is part of the U.S. Constitution, which is much more difficult to change, as are states' bills of rights.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4302, The Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights
The struggle between the rights of the people and the power of government to deny those rights is one of the great themes of human history. This episode of 60-Second Civics explores two documents that limited the power of government in English history: the Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights. These documents significantly influenced American conceptions of the limitations on the power of government.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4301, Dr. Carla Hayden's Advice to Young Women Considering Public Service: Women's History Month, Part 31
Today, we close our Women's History Month Series with our final interview with Dr. Carla Hayden, the Librarian of Congress. Dr. Hayden shares her mother's advice on the benefits of public service.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4300, Dr. Carla Hayden on Becoming the Librarian of Congress: Women's History Month, Part 30
Dr. Carla Hayden is the first woman and African American Librarian of Congress. On today's podcast, Dr. Hayden explains why she considers herself to be an "accidental librarian" and what being a librarian means to her.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4299, Dr. Carla Hayden on Resources from the Library of Congress: Women's History Month, Part 29
On today's episode, we had the honor of speaking with Dr. Carla Hayden, the Librarian of Congress, who explains the resources available at the Library of Congress. Dr. Hayden is the first woman and African American Librarian of Congress.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4298, Judge Mae D'Agostino's Advice to Young People Considering Public Service: Women's History Month, Part 28
Today on 60-Second Civics, Judge Mae D'Agostino provides her advice to young people considering a career in public service.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4297, Judge Mae D'Agostino on Barriers to Women Entering the Legal Profession: Women's History Month, Part 27
On today's podcast, Judge Mae D'Agostino, a judge in the Northern District of New York, speaks about her belief that "more opportunities will be opening up for women in the years and months ahead" in the federal judiciary and what steps women entering the legal profession can take to better assure success in their legal career.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4296, Judge Mae D'Agostino on Serving as a U.S. District Court Judge: Women's History Month, Part 26
On today's podcast, we welcome a very special guest: Judge Mae D'Agostino, a judge in the Northern District of New York. Judge D'Agostino speaks about how she came to serve in her position, and what it is like to be the first woman sitting as a judge in many of the courthouses she has presided over.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4295, The Equal Rights Amendment: Women's History Month, Part 25
The Equal Rights Amendment was first proposed in 1923. Its ratification is still in limbo, with several states having rescinded their original ratification. It says, "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4294, The Nineteenth Amendment: Women's History Month, Part 24
After decades of struggle, the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified in 1920, recognizing the right of women to vote throughout the country, but not all women would be able to realize this right.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4293, The Woman Suffrage Procession of 1913: Women's History Month, Part 23
One day before the presidential inauguration of Woodrow Wilson, roughly 8,000 women's rights activists marched from the U.S. Capitol to the Treasury Department to demand the right to vote. Although marred by violence and racism, the aims of the marchers would be realized 7 years later with the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4292, Mary Church Terrell: Women's History Month, Part 22
Mary Church Terrell was an African American educator, women's rights campaigner, and civil rights activist.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4291, Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin: Women's History Month, Part 21
Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin was a Native American activist, attorney, and advocate of women's right to vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4290, Ida Tarbell: Women's History Month, Part 20
Ida Tarbell was a pioneering investigative journalist of the Progressive Era. Her 19-part series on Standard Oil Company would ultimately lead to the breakup of the company.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4289, Ida B. Wells: Women's History Month, Part 19
Ida B. Wells refused to march at the back of a women's suffrage parade. She refused to leave a first-class train car and sit in the section reserved for African Americans. And most importantly she refused to be silenced and courageously reported on lynchings of African Americans, risking her life and facing down numerous threats.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4288, Susan B. Anthony: Women's History Month, Part 18
After her trial for having voted in an 1872 election, Susan B. Anthony explained to the judge the implications of her conviction: "My natural rights, my civil rights, my political rights, are all alike ignored. Robbed of the fundamental privilege of citizenship, I am degraded from the status of a citizen to that of a subject." Today, women in Rochester, New York, cover her grave with "I Voted" stickers.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4287, Elizabeth Cady Stanton: Women's History Month, Part 17
Elizabeth Cady Stanton is remembered for her persuasive oratorical skills, the power of her writing, her tireless advocacy of the right to vote for women and reform of laws that kept men and women on an unequal footing.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4286, The Seneca Falls Convention: Women's History Month, Part 16
In 1848, about 300 activists met in Seneca Falls, New York, for the first convention in the United States devoted to women's rights. They discussed Elizabeth Cady Stanton's proposed Declaration of Sentiments, which mirrored the language of the Declaration of Independence.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4285, The Forten Sisters: Women's History Month, Part 15
Margaretta, Harriet, and Sarah Forten were three powerful African American campaigners for the abolition and women's rights movements. Harriet and Sarah married members of another prominent abolitionist family, the Purvises. Harriet and her husband Robert were involved in the Underground Railroad, and their home served as a refuge for people who had escaped slavery and as a meeting place for abolitionists.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4284, Lucretia Mott: Women's History Month, Part 14
Lucretia Mott was one of the most well-known, active, and influential women's rights and anti-slavery activists in nineteenth-century America. She was a persuasive speaker at a time when public speaking by women was frowned upon. Not allowed to actively participate in the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840 because of their gender, Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton resolved to organize the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention, the first women's rights convention in the nation.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4283, Sarah and Angelina Grimke: Women's History Month, Part 13
Sarah and Angelina Grimke were among the first women to speak out in public in opposition to slavery. They were condemned for speaking out in public to "promiscuous" audiences; that is, audiences composed of both men and women. This prompted them to speak out more forcefully for equal rights for women. They lived long enough to see slavery abolished and the right of African American men to vote recognized, but universal women's suffrage would not be achieved until 1920, although Jim Crow laws would make it difficult or impossible for African Americans vote until the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4282, Beginning of the Women's Movement: Women's History Month, Part 12
The movement for equal rights for women in the United States had its beginnings in the movement to abolish slavery. In both movements, women would encounter vociferous and sometimes violent opposition.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4281, Fanny Wright: Women's History Month, Part 11
Fanny Wright was radical by the standards of her time. She was a writer and social activist who campaigned for equal rights for women, free and secular public education for both boys and girls, and the abolition of slavery, among other social and political issues. Wright was a fierce advocate of equality. She was friends with Thomas Jefferson and the Marquis de Lafayette, conversing with them about political philosophy, and she admired the American experiment with self-government.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4280, Mercy Otis Warren: Women's History Month, Part 10
Mercy Otis Warren was a playwright, poet, historian, and Anti-Federalist political commentator during the American Revolution. She was a talented writer, admired for her skill and her dedication to the principles of natural rights behind the Revolution.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4279, Margaret Todd Whetten: Women's History Month, Part 9
Margaret Todd Whetten and her daughters provided food, clothing, and support to American prisoners in New York City, despite being called by one British jailer the "damndest rebels in New York." They provided a safe refuge for American spies in their home, saving them from capture and certain hanging. As as result, her house became known as the "rebel headquarters."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4278, Women During the Revolutionary War: Women's History Month, Part 8
Women served the American cause in many ways during the Revolutionary War, even as combatants.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4277, The Daughters of Liberty: Women's History Month, Part 7
At the start of the American Revolution, women patriots organized into a group known as the Daughters of Liberty. Like their male counterparts, the Sons of Liberty, women took action, such as boycotts, to protest British policies. For example, they replace imported British tea with "liberty tea," made from leaves, herbs, fruits, and flowers, like goldenrod. Without women's adherence to the boycotts, they would not have been effective.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4276, Native American Women in the Colonial Era: Women's History Month, Part 6
Europeans were surprised that Native American women had so much power and influence, particularly within the Haudenosaunee nations. In those nations, women held political power within the tribes, appointing and removing chiefs at their discretion.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4275, Nanye'hi: Women's History Month, Part 5
Despite being known as the "War Woman of Chota," Nanye'hi, also known as Nancy Ward, was a Cherokee woman who would work for much of her life to ensure peace between the Cherokees and the Americans, while attempting to prevent the further seizure of Cherokee land.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4274, Elizabeth Freeman: Women's History Month, Part 4
Elizabeth Freeman, also known as Mum Bett, escaped slavery in a way that was unusual: she took her case to court. She approached lawyer Theodore Sedgwick with this question: "I heard that paper read yesterday that says 'all men are born equal,' and that every man has a right to freedom ... won't the law give me my freedom?" Appealing to her natural rights and her rights under the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780, she sued for her freedom and won.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4273, Ona Judge: Women's History Month, Part 3
Ona Judge escaped George and Martha Washington's household, where she was an enslaved housemaid, and made her way to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, where she eluded George Washington's determined attempts to capture her. She made a new life for herself in New Hampshire, marrying and having three children. Her side of her remarkable story survives because she gave interviews to at least two abolitionist newspapers.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4272, Coverture and the Colonial Era: Women's History Month, Part 2
A married woman living during the American colonial era would have lived under the legal doctrine called "coverture," where her legal identity was subsumed under that of her husband. William Blackstone wrote, "By marriage, the husband and wife are one person in the law: that is, the very being or legal existence of the woman is suspended during the marriage, or at least is incorporated and consolidated into that of the husband: under whose wing, protection, and cover, she performs every thing." This was governed by colonial law before independence and state law after independence. It would not change substantially after the Revolution in most states, but divorce and child custody laws would change.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4271, The Struggle for Equality: Women's History Month, Part 1
It's Women's History Month! All this month, 60-Second Civics will explain the struggle for equal rights for women and how our Constitution and laws evolved to make our nation a more representative democracy. In this episode, we briefly trace the struggle of women for equal voting rights in the United States.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4270, Mass Incarceration: Black History Month, Part 28
According to today's guest, Hernandez Stroud, counsel for the Justice Program of the Brennan Center for Justice at the NYU School of Law, mass incarceration has "decimated the lives of black and brown people and communities." Learn more about the problem of mass incarceration and how it began on today's extra-long bonus episode of the 60-Second Civics podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4269, Brown v. Board of Education: Black History Month, Part 27
On today's extra-long episode, special guest Hernandez Stroud, counsel for the Justice Program of the Brennan Center for Justice at the NYU School of Law, explains the historical context of the two Brown v. Board of Education decisions.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4268, Thurgood Marshall: Black History Month, Part 26
Thurgood Marshall was the first African American justice appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court. Learn about his remarkable life as told by Hernandez Stroud, counsel for the Justice Program of the Brennan Center for Justice at the NYU School of Law.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4267, Highlander Folk School: Black History Month, Part 25
The Highlander Folk School in Tennessee trained many civil rights activists in the 1950s. It established the Citizenship Training Program, also known as Citizenship Schools, which educated hundreds of African Americans in the South about their voting rights and how to take political action in the 1950s and 1960s.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4266, The Civil Rights Movement: Black History Month, Part 24
The civil rights movement, which was led by African Americans, involved men and women of many backgrounds and ethnicities who took to the streets to end segregation and to press for civil, political, and economic rights for African Americans.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4265, Rosa Parks: Black History Month, Part 23
Rosa Parks is best known for refusing to give up her seat on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama, but she fought against injustice her entire life.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4264, Segregation: Black History Month, Part 22
Segregation was meant to ensure not only the separation of African Americans from whites, but also a system of white supremacy. This was given legal cover by the 1896 decision of Plessy v. Ferguson. Persistent racial violence against African Americans enforced the social norms of white supremacy and resulted in the deaths of thousands.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4263, The Failure of Reconstruction and the Rise of Jim Crow: Black History Month, Part 21
The victory of the Union over the Confederacy and the passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments did not mean an end to racism in the United States. Federal troops that were meant to ensure the equal enforcement of the laws were sent back to their barracks in 1877. This ended Reconstruction and began the era known as Jim Crow, where Southern states passed laws to subjugate African Americans. Jim Crow would last until the 1960s.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4262, The Civil War Amendments: Black History Month, Part 20
The Civil War Amendments were passed in response to attempts by former Confederate states to limit the rights of African Americans. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery. The Fourteenth Amendment recognized African Americans as citizens and forbade states from denying due process or equal protection of the laws and from abridging the privileges or immunities of citizens. The Fifteenth Amendment protected the rights of African American men to vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4261, The Thirteenth Amendment and the Black Codes: Black History Month, Part 19
The Thirteenth Amendment finally abolished slavery throughout the entire United States. But African Americans' struggle for equality faced daunting obstacles, such as the vicious and discriminatory Black Codes, which were laws passed to ensure the continued subjugation of formerly enslaved people.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4260, Emancipation Proclamation and Service in the Civil War: Black History Month, Part 18
Despite the fact that African Americans had served in the military since the Revolutionary War, they were not allowed to join the military at the start of the Civil War, but laws passed in 1862 changed this discriminatory policy. The Emancipation Proclamation did not free all the enslaved people in the country. This would not be accomplished until the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4259, Robert Smalls, from Captivity to Congress: Black History Month, Part 17
Robert Smalls escaped slavery in 1862 along with his family by sailing a Confederate ship out of Charleston while disguised as the captain, right under the noses of the Confederates. Afterward, he would pilot the same ship for the Union. But that wasn't all. He founded a school and a newspaper and served in the South Carolina state assembly and senate and in the U.S. House of Representatives. Despite persistent racism and threats against his life, he lived a long life of public service.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4258, Frederick Douglass: Black History Month, Part 16
Frederick Douglass was a civil rights crusader. Although born into slavery, he escaped, learned to read and write, and became one of the era's most renowned orators. During his life, he wrote three autobiographies, traveled extensively denouncing the evils of slavery, and campaigned for equal rights for women.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4257, Frederick Douglass and Abraham Lincoln Meet: Black History Month, Part 15
Anti-slavery activist Frederick Douglass and President Abraham Lincoln did not agree on some of the most important issues facing the country before and during the Civil War. Douglass felt that Lincoln did too much to mollify the South and not enough to support the emancipation of enslaved African Americans and the civil rights of people of color. But they would gradually become friends, developing a relationship based on mutual respect.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4256, Sojourner Truth: Black History Month, Part 14
Sojourner Truth was a determined woman. She fled slavery, successfully sued to have her son returned to her in New York after he had been illegally sold to a slaveholder, and made a new life for herself. Truth was a prolific social activist, producing an autobiography, speaking out against slavery, and advocating for the right of women to vote. Two hundred years after her death, a robotic exploration vehicle called Sojourner, named after her, would land on Mars.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4255, The Underground Railroad: Black History Month, Part 13
The Underground Railroad was a system of escape routes, safehouses, and committed anti-slavery activists who helped enslaved people escape to freedom in Canada. Thousands fled to freedom thanks to this multiracial movement led by free African Americans.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4254, Harriet Tubman: Black History Month, Part 12
Harriet Tubman's story is truly inspiring. Born a slave, she escaped to freedom, but later led dozens others to their freedom through the human network known as the Underground Railroad. When the Civil War began, she served as a spy, a nurse, and a guide. But that wasn't all. After the war, she advocated for the right of women to vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4253, Abolitionism: Black History Month, Part 11
The struggle to abolish slavery began during the colonial period, but gathered steam in the early 1800s, becoming more militant in the years before the Civil War. This multiracial movement sought the emancipation of enslaved African Americans. Women played a major role, which sowed the seeds of the women's suffrage movement.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4252, Fugitive Slave Clause: Black History Month, Part 10
The fugitive slave clause was another compromise the Framers of the Constitution made to ensure that the Southern states would ratif the Constitution. This clause required that enslaved people who escaped be returned to the person who claimed them. This applied even to states where slavery would be outlawed, which would later stoke the outrage of abolitionists and raise tension between the North and the South.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4251, Three-Fifths Compromise: Black History Month, Part 9
The Three-Fifths Compromise counted enslaved people for purposes of representation, not to protect the interests of the enslaved people, but to advance the interests of the slaveholders. Here's how it happened: the Framers of the Constitution agreed that there should be proportional representation in the House of Representatives, but disagreed on whether to count enslaved people for purposes of representation. Southern states held many enslaved people in bondage, but Northern states held few. The two sides came to a compromise: they would count three out of every five enslaved people, hence the term "Three-Fifths Compromise." Sadly, this would remain in the Constitution until the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4250, The Constitution and Slavery: Black History Month, Part 8
Many of the Framers of the Constitution were ashamed of slavery, and carefully avoided using the words "slave" or "slavery" in the document. Nevertheless, the Framers protected slavery in the Constitution in order to accommodate the Southern states, which threatened to refuse to join the Union.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4249, African Americans in the American Revolution: Black History Month, Part 7
Enslaved African Americans faced difficult choices at the start of the Revolutionary War. The British royal governor of Virginia promised them freedom, and many joined the Loyalist cause. Up to 100,000 others fled across British lines. And yet about 5,000 served as soldiers in the Continental Army, serving valiantly. We'll learn some of their stories on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4248, Phillis Wheatley Peters: Black History Month, Part 6
Phillis Wheatley Peters was the first African American to publish a volume of poetry. She was born around 1753 and taken to the American colonies as a slave, but learned how to read and write, publishing her first poem at the age of thirteen. Her fame became international when her poems were published in London. She is remembered not only for her poetry, but also for inspiring abolitionists in America and Europe.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4247, The Declaration of Independence and Slavery: Black History Month, Part 5
The Declaration of Independence asserted that "all Men are created equal" and yet enslaved African Americans had been systematically deprived of their rights since at least 1619. Today we learn about the passages condemning slavery that were deleted from the Declaration of Independence.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4246, The Economics of Slavery: Black History Month, Part 4
The South became increasingly dependent on the labor of enslaved African Americans, especially after the invention of the cotton gin in 1793. Cotton was a main cash crop. This dependence on forced labor led to the refusal of the South to abolish slavery.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4245, Languages and Cultures of Enslaved Africans in America: Black History Month, Part 3
When enslaved Africans were forcibly brought to America, their names were changed by slaveholders and they were often forbidden to speak their native languages. Nevertheless, these rich cultures were never entirely suppressed, and their influence can be seen in the United States today.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4244, Introduction of Slavery to America: Black History Month, Part 2
More than 10 million enslaved Africans would be forcibly transported to the New Word, and at least 250,000 would be taken to the United States. Slavery would not be confined to the South. Slavery was eventually practiced in every American colony.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4243, All Men Are Created Equal: Black History Month, Part 1
Despite the assurance of the Declaration of Independence that "all men are created equal," the Declaration did not recognize the freedom of enslaved people. And although the Constitution did not mention the word "slavery," it contained provisions that ensured its survival. Nevertheless, the story of the more than 400 years since slavery was first introduced into the thirteen colonies is one of expanding rights and greater equality for all Americans.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4242, Time, Place, and Manner Restrictions on Free Assembly
The First Amendment protects freedom of assembly, but the Supreme Court has held that time, place, and manner restrictions are permissible under certain circumstances. Learn more on today's 60-Second Civics.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4241, The Right to Peaceably Assemble
The right to peaceably assemble is protected by the First Amendment, but it does have limits.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4240, What Will Donald Trump's Second Senate Impeachment Trial Look Like?
Former president Donald Trump's second impeachment trial is scheduled to begin on February 9. It will look a bit different than the last impeachment trial, but the constitutional limitations remain the same.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4239, What Is the Charge Against Former President Donald Trump in His Second Impeachment Trial?
Today we explain the charge against former president Donald Trump in his second impeachment trial and learn about past impeachments.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4238, What Is Impeachment?
Today we present a brief overview of the impeachment process.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4237, What Is the Filibuster?
The filibuster has been the news recently, with some members of Congress calling for end of practice. Today we learn what the filibuster is and how senators can stop a filibuster by a vote of 60 senators.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4236, Three Types of Executive Actions
Today we learn the difference between three types of executive actions: executive orders, executive memoranda, and presidential proclamations.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4235, How Recent Presidents Began Their Administrations
It is hard to compare different presidents' performance in their first 100 days. The numbers of laws and executive orders signed by the president in their first 100 days varies quite a lot, and these do not have equal weight: some laws and executive orders are more impactful than others. Furthermore, presidents may or may not have majority support in Congress, and the sizes of their majorities varies.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4234, What Can a President Accomplish in 100 Days?
Why do presidents rely so heavily on executive orders during their first 100 days in office? We examine this question and learn about the standard set by FDR during his first 100 days as president on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4233, A President's First 100 Days
FDR faced the Great Depression and a banking crisis when he assumed office. Joe Biden faces the challenge of COVID-19 and a struggling economy. FDR's aggressive response within the first 100 days of his inauguration set the standard for every president after him.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4232, The Role of Former Presidents in American Society
In modern times, former presidents have largely chosen to engage in public service, but they have also sought to improve their reputations.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4231, Inauguration Day
Technological advances in the early twentieth century allowed for ballots to be counted more quickly and reduced the time it took for legislators to travel from their states to the capital. As a result, the Twentieth Amendment was ratified in 1933, allowing for a newly elected or re-elected president and members of Congress to begin serving their terms shortly after being elected, reducing the amount of time "lame-duck" officials remain in office.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4230, The Troubled Inauguration of Abraham Lincoln
You might be tempted to think that Wednesday's inauguration of Joe Biden is the most troubled in history, but it is not. Today we look at the first inauguration of Abraham Lincoln and remember Lincoln's words as an inspiration for the future of our diverse union.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4229, The Power to Investigate: How Congress Works, Part 23
Congress has conducted hundreds of investigations since 1792.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4228, The Authority of Congress to Conduct Investigations: How Congress Works, Part 22
Even though it's not mentioned in the Constitution, Congress has the authority to carry out investigations.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4227, Lobbying: How Congress Works, Part 21
Today's podcast explains the practice of lobbying and the requirements of the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4226, How Constituents Contribute to Legislation: How Congress Works, Part 20
Constituents, the people represented by an elected official, are valuable sources of ideas for legislation. Constituents influence legislation by responding to opinion polls and contacting members of Congress, among other methods. Lobbying is another method of trying to affect legislation. These are typically organized efforts to influence legislators and other public officials to propose or modify legislation or regulations.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4225, The Executive Branch as a Source of Legislation: How Congress Works, Part 19
Congress and the executive branch normally work closely together in creating legislation. The president will often lay out his or her legislative agenda in the State of the Union address. Executive agencies also regularly provide legislative proposals.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4224, Ideas for Legislation: How Congress Works, Part 18
Members of Congress have many reasons for initiating legislation, including in response to problems and promises made to constituents. The Congressional Research Service and the Congressional Budget Office provide information that inform legislation.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4223, Congress and Individual Rights: How Congress Works, Part 17
Today we learn about the role of Congress in protecting individual rights.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4222, Persistence and Compromise Is the Key to Lawmaking: How Congress Works, Part 16
It's tough work getting a bill through Congress. At each stage there is a need to gain support of the majority, whether it is in a committee or in the House or Senate chambers. The bill must also normally have the support of the president.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4221, How a Bill Becomes a Law: How Congress Works, Part 15
What happens when the House and Senate versions differ? Find out on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4220, The Committee Vote: How Congress Works, Part 14
Bills proposed in Congress usually go to a committee, which then modifies the bill and makes recommendations for amendments, if needed. The bill might receive a floor vote, then goes to a committee in the other chamber before possible amendment and another vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4219, Mark-up Sessions: How Congress Works, Part 13
How do congressional committees work? Find out on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4218, Bills and Resolutions: How Congress Works, Part 12
Before it can become a law, a bill has to introduced by the House or the Senate. Revenue bills must originate in the House. The bill then gets assigned to one or more committees, which will then hold hearings. These are usually open to the public. Experts present testimony so that members of Congress can evaluate the merits of the bill.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4217, Introducing a Bill: How Congress Works, Part 11
Today on the podcast: simple, joint, and concurrent resolutions.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4216, President Pro Tempore: How Congress Works, Part 10
Today we learn about the president pro tempore of the Senate and the majority whip of the House.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4215, Senate Leadership: How Congress Works, Part 9
Senators were originally considered to be ambassadors of their states rather than representatives of the people in the states. That all changed in 1913 with the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4214, Office of Speaker in England and America: How Congress Works, Part 8
Today we contrast the speaker of the House of Commons with that of the House of Representatives.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4213, Leadership in the House vs. the Senate: How Congress Works, Part 7
The House of Representatives and Senate have different leadership structures. The House chooses its own Speaker, but the Constitution mandates that the vice president is the president of the Senate. The Senate has a majority and a minority leader.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4212, A Powerful Speaker of the House: How Congress Works, Part
The Speaker of the House of Representatives is a powerful position. The House selects its own Speaker, which explains why the Speaker is of the same political party as the majority party in the House.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4211, Influence of Political Parties on Congress: How Congress Works, Part 5
Political parties have considerable influence in Congress. Party control traditionally has been stronger in the House than in the Senate.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4210, Senate Rules: How Congress Works, Part 4
The Senate has rules, including the filibuster. Senate rules are treated more informally than in the House.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4209, Rules for House Committees: How Congress Works, Part 3
Rules, rules, rules. Your mom has them, your school has them, even the House of Representatives has them.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4208, The Purpose of Congressional Committees: How Congress Works, Part 2
The careful, deliberative work of Congress often occurs during committee meetings.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4207, Congressional Committees: How Congress Works, Part 1
Both the House and Senate form committees that carefully examine proposed legislation and hear a variety of perspectives. Congress also holds oversight hearings to examine how the executive branch carries out laws enacted by Congress. This is the first episode in our series on how Congress performs its functions in the American constitutional system.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4206, Helping the Public: The Power of the Congress, Part 16
Members of Congress and their staffers help the public in a variety of ways. Casework, for example, involves helping constituents solve problems that they have encountered with the federal government.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4205, Communication with Constituents: The Power of the Congress, Part 15
On today's episode, we learn about how members of Congress communicate with their constituents

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4204, Delegate vs. Trustee Theory of Representation: The Power of the Congress, Part 14
Today on the podcast: the delegate vs. trustee theory of representation

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4203, The Size of Congress: The Power of the Congress, Part 13
Each member of the House of Representatives represents an average of more than 700,000 people. Among the world's legislatures, only India has larger constituencies.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4202, 535 Legislators: The Power of the Congress, Part 12
Did you know that the Constitution originally gave each state legislature authority to decide who would serve as that state's senators? This changed in 1913 with the Seventeenth Amendment. Today there are 435 voting members of the House of Representatives and 100 Senators.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4201, Legislative Districts: The Power of the Congress, Part 11
What can you do if you don't like the way your congressional district is drawn? Find out on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4200, Congress Represents the People and the States: The Power of the Congress, Part 1
Both the people and the states have a voice in Congress

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4199, Inherent Powers: The Power of the Congress, Part 9
The power to conduct investigations and compel testimony goes back to Parliament and the colonial legislatures.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4198, Enforcement Powers: The Power of the Congress, Part 8
The enforcement powers of Congress have been used to enact sweeping civil rights and voting rights laws.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4197, Necessary and Proper: The Power of the Congress, Part 7
The necessary and proper clause was controversial from the start. Today we learn about some of the debates about this important clause of the Constitution between Federalists and Anti-Federalists.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4196, Congress and Administrative Agencies: The Power of the Congress, Part 6
Congress can both create and oversee administrative agencies. This is one of the implied powers of Congress.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4195, The Implied Powers: The Power of the Congress, Part 5
Today on 60-Second Civics, we learn about the implied powers of Congress and explore its historical roots in a seminal Supreme Court case.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4194, More Enumerated Powers of Congress: The Power of the Congress, Part 4
Today on the podcast, we explore several of the enumerated powers of Congress.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4193, Enumerated Powers of Congress: The Power of the Congress, Part 3
The Constitution lists many specific powers that Congress has. These are called enumerated powers or express powers.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4192, How the Bill of Rights Limits Congress: The Power of the Congress, Part 2
On today's episode, learn two ways that the Bill of Rights limits Congress.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4191, How the Framers Limited the Power of Congress: The Power of the Congress, Part 1
We kick off our series on Congress by talking about both the power of Congress and limitations on this power. The Framers of the Constitution mistrusted concentrations of power in government, so they devised several ways to limit the power of Congress.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4190, The President and America's Reputation: The Power of the Presidency, Part 28
Why is the president the preeminent figure in domestic and international politics? Find out on today's episode.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4189, Congress as Electoral College Tiebreaker: The Power of the Presidency, Part 2
What happens if there is a tie in the Electoral College? Find out on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4188, The Role of the Electoral College: The Power of the Presidency, Part 26
Did you know that it takes 270 electoral votes to win the presidency? We explain the role of the Electoral College on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4187, Prime Minister vs. President: The Power of the Presidency, Part 24
There are important differences between Parliament and Congress, just as there are important differences between the powers and limitations on an American president and those on a British prime minister. Learn what these are on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4186, Prime Minister vs. President: The Power of the Presidency, Part 2
How does the prime minister of the United Kingdom differ from the American president? Find out on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4185, Congress and the Supreme Court Limit the President: The Power of the Presidency, Part 23
Congress, the Supreme Court, and public opinion limit the power of the president. Find out how on today's 60-Second Civics podcast

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4184, Congress Can Limit a President's Power: The Power of the Presidency, Part 22
Congress has a number of ways to limit the power of presidents. For example, Congress can refuse to ratify treaties and decline to confirm presidential nominees. Congress can even refuse to fund the president's programs or abolish agencies.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4183, Check and Balances on the President: The Power of the Presidency, Part 21
The president's power is limited by a few different methods. For example, an amendment to the Constitution limits the president to two elected terms in office. Another powerful check on the president's power is Congress. Learn about more of the ways the president's powers are limited on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4182, Executive Orders: The Power of the Presidency, Part 20
Why have executive orders increased in recent years? Find out on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4181, Two Reasons for the Growth of Executive Power: The Power of the Presidency, Part 19
The president recommends legislation to Congress. The executive branch also plays an important role in determining federal regulations and elaborating laws. These factors have led to the growth of executive power.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4180, The Balance of Power: The Power of the Presidency, Part 18
ver time, power has flowed between Congress and the executive branch.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4179, Congress and the Court Reign in the President: The Power of the Presidency, Part 17
Can Congress and the Supreme Court reign in the power of the president? You bet.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4178, Wars, Emergencies, and FDR: The Power of the Presidency, Part 15
What does the Constitution say about presidential powers during emergencies or crisis? The answer may surprise you.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4177, Wars, Emergencies, and FDR: The Power of the Presidency, Part 15
With the support of Congress, FDR responded to the multiple crises that occurred during his administration.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4176, Diplomat in Chief: The Power of the Presidency, Part 14
How is the president America's diplomat in chief? Find out on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4175, The President and Treaties: The Power of the Presidency, Part 13
The president can make treaties with the approval of two-thirds of the Senate.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4174, The President as Commander in Chief: The Power of the Presidency, Part 12
The president is commander in chief, but only Congress can declare war. Congress has declared war only five times in the nation's history.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4173, The President and Foreign Affairs: The Power of the Presidency, Part 11
The president's power is at its greatest when it comes to foreign affairs.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4172, The President As Leader of Foreign Policy: The Power of the Presidency, Part 10
The president has a number of important powers, but the president's powers are limited in important ways.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4171, Franklin D. Roosevelt: The Power of the Presidency, Part 9
Find out why Franklin D. Roosevelt was arguably the most influential president of the 20th century.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4170, Lincoln, Roosevelt, and Wilson: The Power of the Presidency, Part 8
Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson each contributed to the growth of presidential power.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4169, Jefferson and the Use of Presidential Power: The Power of the Presidency, Part 7
Thomas Jefferson sought to be a model of republican simplicity.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4168, The Rise of Presidential Power: The Power of the Presidency, Part 6
Some scholars trace the rise of the powerful modern presidency to Andrew Jackson, who expanded the use of the veto and appealed directly to the public to support his position on the recharter of the Second Bank of the United States.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4167, A Strong President, But Not Too Strong: The Power of the Presidency, Part 5
The Framers of the Constitution wanted the president to be strong, but not too strong

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4166, Above Partisan Politics? The Power of the Presidency, Part 4
The Framers of the Constitution envisioned the president as being above partisan politics. They wanted the president to be a person who had earned the esteem and confidence of the entire nation. This was one of the purposes of the Electoral College.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4165, A President's Inherent Powers: The Power of the Presidency, Part 3
Today: some controversial inherent powers of presidents.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 2, A Framework for Presidential Power: The Power of the Presidency, Part 2
Today we kick off a brief series on the power of the presidency.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4164, A Framework for Presidential Power: The Power of the Presidency, Part 2
Justice Robert Jackson's concurring opinion in Youngstown Sheet and Tube v. Sawyer (1952) sets forth a framework that is widely used to assess presidential power.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4163, Presidential Powers: The Power of the Presidency, Part 1
Today we kick off a brief series on the power of the presidency.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4162, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 43: Referendum and Recall
On today's podcast we learn about two political processes that directly involve the people: referendums and recall elections.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4161, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 42: Ballot Initiatives
There are two types of ballot initiatives: direct and indirect. Learn the difference on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4160, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 41: Gerrymandering
The term "gerrymandering" is named after a delegate to the Philadelphia Convention, Governor Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts. His political party drew a partisan electoral district designed to give them victory. A newspaper editor pinned the blame on Gerry, naming the salamander-shaped district "gerrymander."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4159, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 40: One Person, One Vote
The principle of "one person, one vote" means that each congressional district in a state must have a roughly equal population as those in other states. This applies only the House, however. The Senate is based on equal representation, with each state receiving two senators.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4158, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 39: The Popular Vote and the Electoral Vote
The Electoral College was devised as a compromise by the Framers of the Constitution at the Constitutional Convention of 1787. This complicated system, where the winner of the popular vote in most states get all the electoral votes of the state, means that the winner of the popular vote does not always win the presidency.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4157, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 38: How the Electoral College Works
The Electoral College might seem like a complicated method of choosing a president, but on this episode of 60-Second Civics, we'll explain how it works.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4156, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 37: Why We Have the Electoral College
Although the Framers of the Constitution considered having the president be directly elected by the people, they instead created the Electoral College.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4155, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 36: The Importance of a Peaceful Transition of Power
Why does it matter that we have a peaceful transition of power in a democracy? We'll hear from David Levine, an Elections Integrity Fellow from the bipartisan Alliance for Securing Democracy. This is the final episode in our series on election security with David Levine. Thank you, David, for helping us better understand our electoral system!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4154, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 35: Verifying the Vote with David Levine
What do elections officials do on the day after the election? We'll find out from David Levine, an Elections Integrity Fellow from the bipartisan Alliance for Securing Democracy.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4153, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 34: How the Votes are Counted with David Levine
Happy Election Day! On today's podcast, David Levine, an Elections Integrity Fellow from the bipartisan Alliance for Securing Democracy, explains what elections officials do on Election Day.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4152, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 33: How Voting Works with David Levine
Today we are joined once again by David Levine, an Elections Integrity Fellow from the bipartisan Alliance for Securing Democracy. David explains how voting actually works in the United States.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4151, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 32: Election Security with David Levine
Today we are joined by a very special guest, David Levine, who is an Elections Integrity Fellow from the bipartisan Alliance for Securing Democracy. David talks about election security, elections officials, signature verification, and what to do if there are any problems casting your vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4150, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 31: Voting, Registration, and Participation
The states make many decisions regarding voting rights, and most states require citizens to register before voting. Although voter turnout has surged in the days leading up to the 2020 presidential election, in recent years there has been a steady decline in voter turnout for elections.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4149, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 30: International Context of Twenty-sixth Amendment
Most Western democracies lowered the voting age to eighteen in the 1970s. Some have even lowered it to sixteen. But a few still retain a minimum voting age of twenty-one.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4148, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 29: Shootings Gave Twenty-sixth Amendment Renewed Urgency
Two incidents in 1970 galvanized the movement to lower the voting age to eighteen: the Kent State and Jackson State shootings of anti-war demonstrators.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4147, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 28: "Old Enough to Fight, Old Enough to Vote"
"Old enough to fight, old enough to vote" originated during World War II. The argument has resonance with the Declaration of Independence, which says, "the just powers of government are derived from the consent of the governed.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4146, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 27: Cultural Context of the Twenty-sixth Amendment
The countercultural movement of the 1960s and the Vietnam War provided the cultural context to the movement to lower the voting age to 18.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4145, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 26: Oregon v. Mitchell
The Oregon v. Mitchell Supreme Court case in 1970 gave added motivation for supporters of lowering the voting age to push for a constitutional amendment to reduce the national voting age to 18.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4144, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 25: Vietnam and the Twenty-sixth Amendment
The Vietnam War motivated the states to take up the ratification process for the Twenty-sixth Amendment with a sense of urgency.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4143, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 24: The Twenty-sixth Amendment
The Twenty-sixth Amendment mandates that federal and state legislatures not interfere with the right to vote of citizens eighteen years of age or older in federal, state, and local elections.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4142, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 23: Shelby County v. Holder
On today's podcast we learn how Shelby County v. Holder changed the Voting Rights Act.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4141, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 22: The Voting Rights Act of 1965
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a step in the right direction, but it did not protect voting rights. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 prohibits discrimination based on race, eliminates literacy tests, poll taxes, and discriminatory voter registration practices. It also requires voting materials and assistance in appropriate languages in places with significant numbers of voters who do not speak English.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4140, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 21: Prelude to the Voting Rights Act
Both the the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and the Civil Rights Act of 1960 were meant to eliminate interference with the right to vote. Both of the acts paved the way for the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4139, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 20: Removing Obstacles to Native American Voting
Native Americans were often deprived of their right to vote until Congress took action.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4138, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 19: Indian Citizenship Act of 1924
In several states, Native Americans are viewed as an increasingly important voting bloc. Only in 1924 did the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 extend the right to Native Americans, but the states continued to block Native access to the polls until at least 1965.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4137, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 18: Native American Citizenship and Voting
The Framers considered Native Americans to be members of their tribes, not citizens of the United States, and were not allowed to vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4136, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 17: The Nineteenth Amendment
As the United States entered World War I, pressure to recognize the right of women to vote increased. After the war, women launched a national campaign that included huge parades, demonstrations, picketing, and civil disobedience in Washington, D.C. The Nineteenth Amendment was finally adopted in 1920.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4135, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 16: The Slow March of Women's Suffrage
Women in the United States gained the right to vote only in small increments. Plenty of excuses were offered for not recognizing the right of women to vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4134, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 15: State Voting Rights for Women
In 1869 Wyoming, while still a territory, gave women the right to vote. By 1918 more than half the states had enfranchised women.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4133, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 14: Equal Voting Rights for Women
The road to winning the right to vote for women was long, and suffragists faced many setbacks.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4132, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 13: Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
During the middle years of the nineteenth century the struggle for freedom and equality for African Americans was closely linked to the campaign for woman suffrage. Many abolitionists worked for woman suffrage, just as many women worked to end slavery.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4131, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 12: Literacy Tests
Literacy tests were designed to disenfranchise African American voters. They did not disappear entirely until 1970.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4130, 60-Second Civics, Episode 4130: October 11, 2020
Poll taxes were meant to keep the poor and minorities from voting. The Twenty-Fourth Amendment ended poll taxes in 1964.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4129, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 10: Civil Rights Act of 1866
Until discriminatory laws and Supreme Court rulings took effect, millions of African Americans were added to the voting rolls, and some were elected to public office.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4128, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 9: The Fifteenth Amendment
In theory, the Fifteenth Amendment granted the right to vote to African American men. But discriminatory laws, physical intimidation, and economic reprisals kept African Americans from exercising that right.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4127, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 8: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Mexican American men faced discrimination and violence in Texas when they tried to exercise their right to vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4126, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 7: Dorr Rebellion
Rhode Island was the only state after 1840 that did not have universal enfranchisement of white men. So, Thomas Wilson Dorr convened a "People's Convention" to draft a new state constitution that allowed all white men to vote. This led to a brief civil war in the state.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4125, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 6: Voting Reform in the Early 1800s
Voting reform took place slowly after 1790, with the property requirement slowly being phased out.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4124, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 5: Property Requirements
Suffrage in the original thirteen states expanded greatly after 1790 and many of the original states eliminated property requirements gradually over the nineteenth century, but they often required payment of taxes and had residency requirements.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4123, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 4: Voting and Property
Thomas Paine, with his characteristically sharp wit, pointed out some problems with the property requirement for voting.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4122, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 3: Enfranchisement and Disenfranchisement
Who was allowed to vote during the early years of the American republic? It depended on where you lived.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4121, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 2: Voting in the Colonies
What legacy of Greek and Roman democracy did the colonists inherit? Find out on today's episode.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4120, Voting, Elections, and Representation, Part 1: The Expansion of Suffrage
How did the right to vote gradually expand in the United States? Find out on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4119, Prohibition Changed American Society
Prohibition was an agent of profound social change.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4118, The Prohibition Era Begins
The Eighteenth Amendment launched an era known as Prohibition and the birth of a new industry.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4117, The Prohibition Era Begins
The Eighteenth Amendment launched an era known as Prohibition and the birth of a new industry.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4116, The Prohibition Era
The Prohibition era began just as World War I was drawing to a close. Not every American soldier was happy about returning to a dry country.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4115, The Eighteenth Amendment
The Eighteenth Amendment, which was ratified in January 1919, inaugurated the era of Prohibition by outlawing the "manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors" in the United States.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4114, International Abolition of Slavery
The international movement to abolish the slave trade and the practice of slavery began in Britain and elsewhere in Europe in the eighteenth century.

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