60-Second Civics

Wednesday, December 07
   Daily civics quiz

What advantage did the Federalists have over the Anti-Federalists?

 
 
 
 

Listen to today's podcast:


[Download]   rss feed  Twitter


Donate


  

 
b



About the Podcast: 60-Second Civics is a daily podcast that provides a quick and convenient way for listeners to learn about our nation’s government, the Constitution, and our history. The podcast explores themes related to civics and government, the constitutional issues behind the headlines, and the people and ideas that formed our nation’s history and government.

60-Second Civics is produced by the Center for Civic Education. The show's content is primarily derived from the Center’s education for democracy curricula, including We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution, Foundations of Democracy, and Elements of Democracy.

Subscribe: It's easy to subscribe! Listen on YouTubeiTunes or Stitcher or subscribe via RSS.

Get Involved: Join the conversation about each episode on Twitter. Or you can contact the show by emailing Mark Gage. Let me know what you think!

You Can Help: 60-Second Civics is supported by private donations. You can help keep the podcasts coming by donating, buying an ebook, or by writing a nice review in iTunes to help others discover the show. We love our listeners. You are the reason we created the podcast. Thank you for your kind support!

Music:
The theme music for 60-Second Civics is provided by Cheryl B. Engelhardt. You can find her online at cbemusic.com. The song featured on the podcast is Cheryl B. Engelhardt's "Complacent," which you purchase on iTunes, along with all of Cheryl's music.


Looking for a particular episode? Search by keyword here:



60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4760, Vacillating Policy Toward Native American Tribes: Native American Heritage Month, Part 8
The national government policy vacillated between respecting the sovereignty of Native American tribes and seeking to dismantle tribal governments and to integrate their members into the United States. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4759, Removing Obstacles to Native American Voting: Native American Heritage Month, Part 7
The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 extended the right to vote to all Native Americans, but many encountered obstacles to voting, serving on juries, and giving testimony in courts. Learn more about how these obstacles were removed in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4758, Indian Citizenship Act of 1924: Native American Heritage Month, Part 6
While Native Americans were original not granted citizenship in the U.S., the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 extended the right to vote to all Indians born within the territorial limits of the United States. Learn more about how this change came about in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4757, Denial of Native American Citizenship and Voting Rights: Native American Heritage Month, Part 5
The Framers of the Constitution considered Native Americans to be members of their tribes, which they considered foreign nations. Thus, they denied them citizenship and the right to vote. Learn more about how this set a foundation for future relations in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4756, Native American Activist Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin: Native American Heritage Month, Part 4
Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin was a Native American activist, attorney, and advocate of women's right to vote. Learn more about her life and work in our latest Native American Heritage Month episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4755, The Power of Native American Women in the Colonial Era: Native American Heritage Month, Part 3
Europeans were surprised that Native American women had so much power and influence, particularly within the Haudenosaunee nations. In those nations, women held political power within the tribes, appointing and removing chiefs at their discretion.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4754, Native Americans During the Colonial Era: Native American Heritage Month, Part 2
While Native Americans had lived on the North American continent for at least 24,000 years, the arrival of colonists brought great conflict and change. Learn more about Native Americans in the colonial era in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4753, Native American Tribes in Early America: Native American Heritage Month, Part 1
In honor of Native American Heritage Month, we are rebroadcasting some 60-Second Civics episodes highlighting Native American history, culture, and experience, starting with Native American tribes in the early U.S. Hundreds of different groups of Native Americans had inhabited the continent for thousands of years, including the Eastern Woodland tribes. Learn more about the some of these tribes in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4752, Equality and the American Mind: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 20
Where did the idea of universal human equality, a common American idea, come from? Religious movements in colonial America helped spread the idea of universal moral human equality, including equality among social classes. Listen to today's podcast for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4751, Stoicism, Christianity, and Moral Equality: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 19
Yesterday, we discussed the origins of American political equality, but our founders also possessed a strong sense of moral equality. Indeed, the idea of the moral equality of human beings has ancient origins. Listen to this episode for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4750, Americans' Sense of Political Equality: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 18
The Declaration of Independence states that all men, meaning all people, are created equal. But where did this idea come from? Ideas of natural political equality were developed in seventeenth-century England and exported to its colonies across the North Atlantic. Learn more in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4749, All Men Are Created Equal: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 17
The Declaration of Independence states that among the truths that Americans hold to be self-evident is that all Men are created equal. But what did Thomas Jefferson mean by this statement?

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4748, The American Creed: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 16
Thomas Jefferson said that his purpose in writing the Declaration of Independence was to express a shared understanding of the American mind. Over the course of a few days in June 1776, Jefferson laid out the most fundamental principles and central political beliefs of the American Revolution and of the people the Revolution created.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4747, Why Americans Held These Truths to Be Self-evident: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Govt. in the Colonies, Part 15
Why did the writers of the Declaration of Independence hold these Truths to be self-evident? Among other things, these Americans were deeply influenced by the teachings of Christianity and English republicanism.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4746, The Meaning of Self-Evident Truths: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Govt. in the Colonies, Part 14
The second paragraph of the Declaration of Independence begins like this: We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. But what does we hold these truths to be self-evident mean? We explain more in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4745, American Fundamentals: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 13
Americans share certain fundamental ideals, values, and principles. Today we examine these foundational beliefs for constitutional government in colonial America.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4744, Elections in Colonial America: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 12
Elections in the colonial era and in the early American republic were rather uncivilized compared to today's standards. Explore the differences between then and now in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4743, Qualifying to Vote in Early America: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 11
In the American colonies, the right to vote followed the British model: only free adult males who owned a certain amount of property could vote, though there were limited exceptions to this rule. Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4742, Voting Rights in Colonial America: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 10
Voting rights in colonial America depended on the ownership of property. In other words, a person had to own a certain amount of land, livestock, or other property in order to qualify to vote. Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4741, Representative Democracy in Colonial America: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 9
Each of the thirteen American colonies had some features of representative democracy that we still see today. For example, each of the colonies had a legislative, executive, and judicial branch. Learn more with this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4740, The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 8
The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut is an important American founding document. The Connecticut Colony has its origins in 1636, when Thomas Hooker led a group of dissenting Puritans from Massachusetts to the Connecticut Valley. Learn why this document was so revolutionary in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4739, The Massachusetts Body of Liberties: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 7
Americans have had a tradition of written guarantees of rights since the time of the thirteen colonies. The Massachusetts Body of Liberties of 1641 provides a good example.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4738, Written Guarantees of Rights: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 6
Despite the presence of indentured servitude and slavery in colonial America, many Americans enjoyed written guarantees of their rights.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4737, Slavery in Colonial America: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 5
Slavery was present in the thirteen American colonies since at least the early 1600s. Until slavery was abolished in the mid-nineteenth century, almost 12 million Africans were transported against their will to America. Listen to today's podcast to learn more about the foundations of slavery in the US.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4736, Indentured Servitude in Colonial America: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 4
Land was plentiful in the thirteen American colonies, but labor was scarce. It was also expensive to sail from Britain to America. This reality created incentives for indentured servitude. Learn more about these colonists in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4735, The Southern Colonies: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 3
The mostly rural and agricultural southern colonies differed a great deal from both the New England and Middle Colonies. Learn how in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4734, The Middle Colonies: Basic Ideas of Rights and Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 2
America's Middle Colonies included today's states of Delaware, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The Middle Colonies different in important ways from the New England colonies. Learn about these key differences in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4733, The New England Colonies: Basic Ideas of Rights and Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 1
The American colonies can be divided into three regions: New England, the Middle Colonies, and the Southern Colonies. At the time of American independence, in 1776, the New England colonies were Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. Learn more about this group of colonies in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4732, Why All Americans Should Understand the Government: Hispanic Heritage Month, Part 10
In the final episode of our Hispanic Heritage Month series, guest host Hernan Sanchez asks Assemblymember Jose Medina why it is so important for every American to understand how the government works and actively participate in its functions. Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4731, Priorities in the California State Assembly: Hispanic Heritage Month, Part 9
In our latest Hispanic Heritage Month episode, Assemblymember Jose Medina discusses his priorities in the CA State Assembly with guest host Hernan Sanchez, namely his focus on making higher education affordable and accessible. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4730, Assemblymember Jose Medina's Decision to Run for Office: Hispanic Heritage Month, Part 8
Assemblymember Jose Medina recounts with our guest host, Hernán Sanchez, his reasons for running for office and the figures who motivated him to enact his civic duty in this way.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4729, Hispanic Contributions to American Constitutionalism: Hispanic Heritage Month, Part 7
In our latest Hispanic Heritage Month podcast with guest host Hernan Sanchez, Assemblymember Jose Medina explains the importance of learning about Hispanic cultures and understanding the contributions that Hispanics have made to American Constitutionalism. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4728, Assemblymember Jose Medina's Background: Hispanic Heritage Month, Part 6
This week, we welcome our guest host, Hernan Sanchez, who interviews California Assemblymember Jose Medina about his background as a first-generation American.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4727, The Importance of Civic Engagement: Hispanic Heritage Month, Part 5
Civic education empowers us to be more informed, active citizens. Learn why civic engagement and education is so important for not only Hispanics, but all Americans in our latest Hispanic Heritage Month episode.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4726, The Importance of Education: Hispanic Heritage Month, Part 4
Despite language and socioeconomic barriers, Hernan Sanchez has been interested in the American school system and education in general from a young age. Listen as he explains the importance of education in his personal experiences and how his experiences have supported his career thus far!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4725, Growing Up as a First-Generation American: Hispanic Heritage Month, Part 3
In our next Hispanic Heritage Month podcast, Hernan Sanchez shares about his family and what it was like to grow up as a first-generation American. Listen to learn more about his experiences!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4724, How Hispanic Cultures Enrich the United States: Hispanic Heritage Month, Part 2
In this episode, Hernan Sanchez discusses some of the various ways that Hispanic cultures enrich the United States. He also explains the difference between the terms Latino and Hispanic, an important distinction in these conversations. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4723, What is Hispanic Heritage Month? Hispanic Heritage Month, Part 1
Each year, Americans observe National Hispanic Heritage Month. During that time, we celebrate the histories, cultures, and also the contributions of American citizens whose ancestors came from places like Spain, Mexico, The Caribbean, and Central and South America. Listen as Hernan Sanchez, Coordinator of National Programs for the Center for Civic Education, explains more about the importance of this celebration!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4722, The Constitution Is Ratified!
Ratifying the Constitution was no easy task. It took several compromises, primarily between Federalists and Anti-Federalists, to reach a document that all the original states could agree upon. Learn about the rough road to ratification in this podcast.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4721, Separated Powers and Parliamentary Systems: We the People with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 11
In the final episode of our series with Dr. Scott Casper, we ask him what are the strengths and weaknesses of a government with separated branches vs. a parliamentary system?

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4720, Objections to the Constitution: We the People with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 10
While the Constitution is now the respected foundational document for the United States, we ask Dr. Casper: What were the principal objections of opponents of the Constitution?

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4719, The Founders' Focus on the Legislative Branch: We the People with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 9
Why did the Founders spend more time dealing with the legislative branch than the executive branch? Find out in today's episode from the We the People Open Course featuring Dr. Scott Casper.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4718, The System of Separated and Shared Powers: We the People with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 8
In this episode, Dr. Scott Casper of the American Antiquarian Society assesses the system of separated and shared powers created in the U.S. Constitution.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4717, Election of the President by the Electoral College: We the People with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 7
In the third part of the video, Dr. Scott Casper discusses the final type of electoral process pondered by the Framers: the Electoral College. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4716, Election of the President by Congress: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 6
In the second of three parts, Dr. Scott Casper discusses the second type of electoral process pondered by the Framers: Election by Congress. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4715, Election of the President by the People: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 5
In the first of three parts, Dr. Scott Casper discusses the first type of electoral process pondered by the Framers: Election by the people. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4714, Designing the Judicial Branch: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 4
What questions did the Framers address in designing the judicial branch? Check out more interviews with Dr. Scott Casper in Unit 2 of the We the People Open Course, a free online course on the U.S. Constitution at Learn.civiced.org.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4713, Designing the Executive Branch: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 3
What questions did the Framers address in designing the executive branch? Check out more interviews with Dr. Scott Casper in Unit 2 of the We the People Open Course, a free online course on the U.S. Constitution at Learn.civiced.org.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4712, Designing the Legislative Branch: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 2
We are once again joined by Dr. Scott Casper in an adapted series from the We the People Open Course, available at learn.civiced.org. Today we ask him: what questions did the Framers address in organizing the legislative branch?

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4711, Factors for Designing the National Government: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 1
Today we kick off a special series adapted from the We the People Open Course, a free online course on the U.S. Constitution that you can find at Learn.civiced.org. We're joined by Dr. Scott Casper, president of the American Antiquarian Society. To start, we ask him: What questions did the Framers consider when designing the three branches of the national government?

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4710, Promoting a Healthy Democracy: Building Your Skills as a Citizen, Part 5
Of all the duties of citizens, perhaps none is more important than doing your part to ensure the healthy functioning of American constitutional democracy. What can you do to support the survival of our constitutional democracy? Find out today!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4709, Effective Participation: Building Your Skills as a Citizen, Part 4
A fundamental aspect of citizenship is participating in the civic affairs of the community and the nation. However, participation alone is not enough. It is important to participate in an informed, thoughtful, and effective manner. How do you do this? Find out in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4708, Respecting Individual Worth and Human Dignity: Building Your Skills as a Citizen, Part 3
One key to fulfilling your responsibilities as an American citizen is to respect the value and human dignity of all people. This means treating other people with respect.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4707, Assuming the Responsibilities of a Citizen: Building Your Skills as a Citizen, Part 2
Being a citizen of the United States means fulfilling certain personal, political, and economic responsibilities. Learn what these include and how you can take on these responsibilities in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4706, Becoming an Independent Member of Society: Building Your Skills as a Citizen, Part 1
Today we launch a special series on the five civic dispositions of the National Assessment for Educational Progress Civics Framework. The first civic disposition stresses the importance of becoming an independent member of society. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4705, Challenging the System: Active Citizenship, Part 5
The American system of government is built on popular sovereignty. However, there have been times in our nation's history when the government did not pursue the common good. Part of being an active citizen is knowing when and how to challenge the system. Here are some principles that can help you.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4704, Serving Your Country: Active Citizenship, Part 4
When you serve your country, you are promoting the common good; that is, the good of everyone in the United States. There are several ways to serve your country. Listen to learn a few!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4703, Political Participation: Active Citizenship, Part 3
Elections have consequences. If you want a say in the political future of our nation, it is up to you to get involved. Luckily, there are many ways to accomplish this. Listen to learn how!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4702, Being an Active Citizen: Active Citizenship, Part 2
Active citizenship means getting involved in the life of your community and nation so that you can help determine the country's future. But how do you do this? Find out more today!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4701, Being an Informed Citizen: Active Citizenship, Part 1
Most American citizens 18 years of age and older have the right to vote and choose our representatives who make our laws. But it is your obligation to cast an informed and responsible vote. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4700, Security: Digital Citizenship, Part 8
The online world is unfortunately full of people who would love to compromise your device and use it for their own purposes. So what can you do to stay secure online? Learn some simple tips today!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4699, Staying Safe: Digital Citizenship, Part 7
The internet and social media can be great places to spend your time, but they also present certain dangers, especially for young people. It???s up to you to be aware of your own personal safety online, but there are a few commonsense recommendations that can help. Listen for these tips!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4698, Privacy: Digital Citizenship, Part 6
When you use digital technology, much of your personal information is collected by the companies that run them. You have a right to privacy, but you should also take steps to protect yourself. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4697, Responsibility: Digital Citizenship, Part 5
An important part of digital citizenship is taking responsibility for your actions on digital platforms.??Part of this is knowing when to engage and when to pull back. Today we share some simple tips for acting with responsibility online!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4696, Full Participation and Equal Access to Technology: Digital Citizenship, Part 4
What does it mean to participate fully in digital civic life? One factor to consider is whether all Americans have equal access to digital technology. But what barriers exist? Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4695, All About the Benjamins: Digital Citizenship: Part 3
Smartphones and other digital devices make it easy to buy things quickly, but it???s important to protect yourself when shopping online. Learn strategies for shopping smart online in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4694, Doing the Right Thing Online: Digital Citizenship: Part 2
A big part of digital citizenship is doing the right thing online; that is, respecting yourself and everyone else you interact with. Learn how to do this in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4693, What Is Digital Citizenship? Digital Citizenship, Part 1
Young people today face a few unique challenges interacting with digital media. Our new series unpacks how to safely navigate these challenges while ensuring all rights are respected and that everyone is acting with responsibility.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4692, Lessons from Classical Philosophy: Back-to-School Basics, Part 12
The American Founders studied ancient Greek and Roman philosophers to learn about how to create the best form of government. Classical political philosophers taught that human beings are, by nature, social creatures.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4691, Self-government in Virginia: Back-to-School Basics, Part 11
In the more than 150 years of European settlement of the British North American colonies, by 1776 Americans had developed many different ways of organizing local governments. Listen to learn more about self-government in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4690, William Blackstone's Influence on the American Founders: Back-to-Basics Part 10
William Blackstone's explanations of English law, published between 1765 and 1769, were incredibly influential on the formation of basic rights in America. Listen to today's episode to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4412, William Blackstone's Influence on the American Founders: Back-to-Basics Part 10
William Blackstone's explanations of English law, published between 1765 and 1769, were incredibly influential on the formation of basic rights in America. Listen to today's episode to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4684, Native Americans and Colonial America: Back-to-School Basics, Part 5
The American colonists were not the first people on the North American continent. Native Americans had lived on the continent for at least 24,000 years. Listen to this episode to learn a little more about Native Americans during colonial times!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4683, The American Founders: Back to School Basics, Part 2
The American Founders drew on a number of basic ideas and experiences to create the kind of government they believed would best protect the natural rights of Americans and promote the common good. Get introduced to some of the Founders in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4682, An Adventure in Ideas with We the People: Back to School Basics, Part 1
The history of the American people has been a great adventure in ideas and in trying to make these ideas a reality. Over the next few weeks, 60-Second Civics will explore the important philosophical ideas and historical events that influenced the writing of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4681, Passing the Buck and Pointing the Finger: Balance of Powers, Part 13
Why has Congress adopted a passing the buck and pointing the finger strategy when it comes to enacting legislation for certain responsibilities? Find out in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4680, Reasons for the Shift of Power Away from Congress: Balance of Powers, Part 12
The balance of power shifted from Congress to the presidency during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt and has remained there to this day. Learn what factors lead to this shift in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4679, The Shift of Power: Balance of Powers, Part 11
From the establishment of our government under the Constitution until Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration in the 1930s, Congress dominated the national government. But then power started to shift toward the executive branch. Learn more in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4678, Physical Evidence of the Founders' Intentions: Balance of Powers, Part 10
Even the placement and design of the three branches of government in the nation's capital, Washington, D.C., provides physical evidence of the Founders' intent that Congress dominate the national government. Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4677, Congress and the Impeachment Power: Balance of Powers, Part 9
Evidence that the Framers intended to create a predominant Congress is apparent by how they bestowed the branch with the power to impeach the president and other high officials in the national government. Learn more in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4676, The Framers Intended Congress to Dominate: Balance of Powers, Part 8
The Framers of the Constitution intended Congress to be the dominant branch of the national government.??Why was that? Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4675, Limits on Each Branch of Government: Balance of Powers, Part 7
The Framers of the Constitution created a system of separated and shared powers and checks and balances to limit and control the use of power by governmental institutions and to prevent the possibility of tyranny. Learn more of each branch's ability to check the use of power by the other institutions in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4674, How the Supreme Court Shares Power: Balance of Powers, Part 6
The Framers of the Constitution wanted to prevent a tyrannical executive in the presidency and a tyranny of a majority in Congress. But they were also careful to limit the power of the courts. Learn how in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4673, How the President Shares Power: Balance of Powers, Part 5
The Framers of the Constitution made each branch of the national government share some of its primary responsibilities and powers with one or more of the other branches. For example, the president and the executive branch have the primary responsibility for carrying out and enforcing laws. Learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4672, How Congress Shares Power: Balance of Powers, Part 4
The Framers of the Constitution wanted to limit the power of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the national government. So, they made each of them share some of its primary responsibilities and accompanying powers with one or more of the other branches. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4671, How to Prevent Tyranny: Balance of Powers, Part 3
The Framers of the Constitution were concerned about two things: First, the emergence of a tyrannical executive in the presidency and second, a tyranny of a majority in Congress. Learn how they design a system of government to address these concerns in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4670, Congress as the Predominant Branch: Balance of Powers, Part 2
Which branch of the federal government has the most power? We explore the intentions of the Framers for how powered was to be distributed among the branches in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4669, A Constitutional World Turned Upside Down: Balance of Powers, Pt 1
Today we begin a special series of podcasts to examine the question of whether power in the federal government is appropriately balanced between Congress and the executive and judicial branches. We will also learn how power has shifted from Congress to the executive and judicial branches of government and consider the implications of this shift.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4668, Public and Private Happiness: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 10
Many of our choices have social consequences and therefore have a civic dimension when they enhance or subtract from public happiness. Thus the pursuit of happiness must refer both to public and to private happiness.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4667, Self-control Is a Key to Happiness: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 9
Every day we make numerous choices in deciding what course of action will add to our well-being and what will make us happy. Making these choices is the pursuit of happiness. Learn more about this important concept in this podcast!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4666, Origin of the andquot;Pursuit of Happinessandquot;: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 8
In the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson announced that every human being has ???certain unalienable rights,??? among which are those to ???life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.????? But what did Jefferson mean by ???the pursuit of happiness????

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4665, Rights That Cannot Be Taken Away: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 7
One key to understanding “inalienable” rights--as distinguished from ordinary, “alienable” rights--is found by turning to one of Thomas Jefferson's rough drafts of the Declaration of Independence. Listen to learn more about the foundations of your rights that cannot be taken away!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4664, Inalienable Rights: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 6
The Declaration of Independence states that “all Men are … endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights.” But what does “unalienable Rights”, or as it was intended “inalienable Rights” mean? Learn more in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4663, Stoicism, Christianity, and Moral Equality: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 19
On Friday, we discussed the origins of Americans' sense of political equality, but our founders also possessed a strong sense of moral equality. Indeed, the idea of the moral equality of human beings has ancient origins. Listen to today's episode for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4662, All Men Are Created Equal: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 4
The Declaration of Independence states that among the andquot;truthsandquot; that Americans hold to be andquot;self-evidentandquot; is that andquot;all Men are created equal.andquot; But what was meant by this statement? Learn more today!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4661, The American Mind: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 3
Thomas Jefferson said that his purpose in writing the Declaration of Independence was to express a shared understanding of the American mind. Learn more about this term and its significance today!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4660, Self-Evident Truths: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 2
That andquot;all Men are created equalandquot; and andquot;endowed by their Creator with Certain unalienable Rightsandquot; was self-evident to Americans at the time of the writing of the Declaration of Independence. Why was this? Learn more about the foundations of our self-evident truths.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4659, Independence Day: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 1
Independence Day is a time to remember and appreciate our heritage of a democratic form of government and to reflect on our country's fundamental principles. Over the few episodes, 60-Second Civics will examine some of the fundamental ideas about government that are contained in the Declaration of Independence, which was passed by Congress on July 2, 1776, and issued on July 4.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4658, The Future for LGBTQ+ Rights: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 7
There's a number of questions that surround the rights of transgender Americans and surround the rights of other parts of the LGBTQ spectrum that are going to continue to be very important when it comes to this particular social justice movement.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4657, Obergefell v. Hodges: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 6
There's a long history of federal cases, like Romer v. Evans and Lawrence v. Texas, that eventually lead up to Windsor v. U.S. as well as Obergefell v. Hodges, which are really the federal Supreme Court marriage equality cases that all really focus on two particular elements of the U.S. constitution.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4656, The Defense of Marriage Act: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 5
Just like we see earlier in the courts, and we see in the legislatures, the executive branch plays a crucial role in the LGBTQ rights movement, particularly when it comes to marriage equality.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4655, Early Legislative Victories for LGBTQ+ Rights: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 4
Like the courts' role, the legislative branch has played a pivotal role in the LGBTQ rights movement. New York, one of the nation's largest states, was a site for an early legislative victory, and that legislation set a standard for legislative action around the country.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4654, Goodridge: The Cinderella Moment for Marriage Equality, LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 3
Why was the 2003 Massachusetts decision in Goodridge v. Dept. of Public Health such an important moment, particularly when it comes to the role of courts in social justice movements? Find out more from Christopher R. Riano about this critical court case in the LGBTQ+ rights movement.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4653, Laying the Groundwork for LGBTQ+ Rights: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 2
We're joined again today by Christopher R. Riano, the president of the Center for Civic Education and co-author, with William Eskridge, of Marriage Equality: From Outlaws to In-laws, winner of the American Bar Association's Silver Gavel Award. We ask him: What were some early LGBTQ+ rights questions that the community faced, particularly following what happened at Stonewall?

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4652, What's Significant About the Stonewall Riots? LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 1
What were the Stonewall Riots and why are they seen as such an important milestone in the LGBTQ+ rights movement? Find out today as we launch a special weeklong series of LGBTQ+ Pride Week podcasts with our special guest, Christopher R. Riano, the president of the Center for Civic Education and co-author, along with William Eskridge, of Marriage Equality: From Outlaws to In-laws.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4651, Promoting a Healthy Democracy: Building Your Skills as a Citizen, Part 5
Of all the duties of citizens, perhaps none is more important than doing your part to ensure the healthy functioning of American constitutional democracy. What can you do to support the survival of our constitutional democracy? Find out today!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4650, Effective Participation: Building Your Skills as a Citizen, Part 4
A fundamental aspect of citizenship is participating in the civic affairs of the community and the nation. However, participation alone is not enough. It's important to participate in an informed, thoughtful, and effective manner. How do you do this? Find out in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4649, Respecting Individual Worth and Human Dignity: Building Your Skills as a Citizen, Part 3
One key to fulfilling your responsibilities as an American citizen is to respect the value and human dignity of all people. This means treating other people with respect.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4648, Assuming the Responsibilities of a Citizen: Building Your Skills as a Citizen, Part 2
Being a citizen of the United States means fulfilling certain personal, political, and economic responsibilities. Learn what these include and how you can take on these responsibilities in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4647, Becoming an Independent Member of Society: Building Your Skills as a Citizen, Part 1
Today we launch a special series on the five civic dispositions of the National Assessment for Educational Progress Civics Framework. The first civic disposition stresses the importance of becoming an independent member of society. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4646, Juneteenth
In celebration of Juneteenth, we invited Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris back on the podcast to discuss the rich history and importance of this holiday for Americans.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4645, Challenging the System: Active Citizenship, Part 5
The American system of government is built on popular sovereignty. However, there have been times in our nation's history when the government did not pursue the common good. Part of being an active citizen is knowing when and how to challenge the system. Here are some principles that can help you.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4644, Serving Your Country: Active Citizenship, Part 4
When you serve your country, you are promoting the common good; that is, the good of everyone in the United States. There are several ways to serve your country. Listen to learn a few!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4643, Political Participation: Active Citizenship, Part 3
Elections have consequences. If you want a say in the political future of our nation, it is up to you to get involved. Luckily, there are many ways to accomplish this. Listen to learn how!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4642, Being an Active Citizen: Active Citizenship, Part 2
Active citizenship means getting involved in the life of your community and nation so that you can help determine the country's future. But how do you do this? Find out more today!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4641, Being an Informed Citizen: Active Citizenship, Part 1
Most American citizens 18 years of age and older have the right to vote and choose our representatives who make our laws. But it is your obligation to cast an informed and responsible vote. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4640, Security: Digital Citizenship, Part 8
The online world is unfortunately full of people who would love to compromise your device and use it for their own purposes. So what can you do to stay secure online? Learn some simple tips today!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4639, Staying Safe: Digital Citizenship, Part 7
The internet and social media can be great places to spend your time, but they also present certain dangers, especially for young people. It???s up to you to be aware of your own personal safety online, but there are a few commonsense recommendations that can help. Listen for these tips!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 469, Staying Safe: Digital Citizenship, Part 7
The internet and social media can be great places to spend your time, but they also present certain dangers, especially for young people. It's up to you to be aware of your own personal safety online, but there are a few commonsense recommendations that can help. Listen for these tips!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4638, Privacy: Digital Citizenship, Part 6
When you use digital technology, much of your personal information is collected by the companies that run them. You have a right to privacy, but you should also take steps to protect yourself. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4637, Responsibility: Digital Citizenship, Part 5
An important part of digital citizenship is taking responsibility for your actions on digital platforms. Part of this is knowing when to engage and when to pull back. Today we share some simple tips for acting with responsibility online!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4636, Full Participation and Equal Access to Technology: Digital Citizenship, Part 4
What does it mean to participate fully in digital civic life? One factor to consider is whether all Americans have equal access to digital technology. But what barriers exist? Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4635, All About the Benjamins: Digital Citizenship: Part 3
Smartphones and other digital devices make it easy to buy things quickly, but it's important to protect yourself when shopping online. Learn strategies for shopping smart online in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4634, Doing the Right Thing Online: Digital Citizenship: Part 2
A big part of digital citizenship is doing the right thing online; that is, respecting yourself and everyone else you interact with. Learn how to do this in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4633, What Is Digital Citizenship? Digital Citizenship, Part 1
Today's young people face a few unique challenges interacting with digital media. Our new series unpacks how to safely navigate these challenges while ensuring everyone's rights are respected and that everyone is acting with responsibility.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4632, Our Country's Aim Will Remain True Towards Justice: Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 6
In light of the recent rise in violence toward Asian Americans, Justice Nakayama of the Hawai'i Supreme Court emphasizes that we must encourage everybody to learn, understand and deeply appreciate and embrace the rule of law in our country.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4631, What Does a Civic and Constitutional Education Mean to You?: Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 5
In today's podcast, we ask Justice Nakayama: What does a civic and constitutional education mean to you? And, why have you dedicated so many years to ensuring greater access to civics for more Americans?

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4630, Learning About Your Role As an American: Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 4
A well-informed citizenry is the cornerstone of our democracy, which is why Justice Nakayama believes it's essential for all Americans to learn about their roles and responsibilities as citizens.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4629, Why Should Young People Consider Public Service?: Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 3
andquot;When you are a public servant, it is important to realize that you are indeed serving the public. I think about that all the time, and I consider it a higher calling.andquot; In our episode, Justice Nakayama shares her perspective on the value of public service.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4628, One of the First Women on the Hawai'i Supreme Court: Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 2
Today, we ask Justice Nakayama: What is it like to be one of the first women to serve on the Hawai'i Supreme Court and one of the few Asian American women serving as a state supreme court justice? While Justice Nakayama shares times in which she faced discrimination, she nonetheless believes that andquot;being on the Supreme Court is an honor and a privilege.andquot;

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4627, How Did You Become a Justice on the Hawai'i Supreme Court?: Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 1
Today, we start a new series with Associate Justice of the Hawai'i Supreme Court, Paula Nakayama. In our first episode, Justice Nakayama shares how a lot of hard work and a little luck helped her achieve one of the highest positions in the legal profession.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4626, George Washington's Rules of Civility: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 13
Before he reached the age of sixteen, George Washington wrote down one hundred and ten Rules of Civility and Decent Behaviour in Company and Conversation, which formed Washington's character at an early age. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4625, George Washington's Views on Slavery: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 12
George Washington was a leader of a revolution that was one of history's greatest advances for individual liberty. Yet throughout his life, he denied liberty to others as a slaveholder and gained wealth from their labor. Learn more about his contradictory positions in today's episode.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4624, George Washington Warns Against Party and Faction: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 11
In his Farewell Address, George Washington warned against the dangers of party and faction.??Listen to learn more about why he did this in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4623, How George Washington Established the Authority of the Presidency: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 10
George Washington's vigorous policies established the president as an energetic leader, not a ceremonial figurehead. But he was careful to stay within the bounds of the Constitution. Learn how Washington established his authority in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4622, George Washington Relied on the Advice of Others: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 9
As president, George Washington understood his own limitations and was not reluctant to rely upon the counsel of others. Learn more how he leaned on the expertise of others for great success in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4621, George Washington as President: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 8
As president, George Washington demonstrated the value of a strong executive in the hands of a trustworthy person. He stayed within the bounds of presidential authority outlined by the Constitution and the acts of the First Congress organizing the executive branch. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4620, George Washington, the Reluctant President: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 7
Persuaded that his election would help cement support for the new government, George Washington reluctantly agreed to serve as the nation's first president. Learn more about his start as president!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4619, A Strong Executive: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 6
At the Philadelphia Convention, which drafted the new Constitution for the United States, the delegates assumed that George Washington would become the nation's first president, and this encouraged them to propose strong, wide-ranging powers for the executive. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4618, George Washington on Patriotism: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 5
From the very beginning of the Revolution, George Washington was a nationalist. His country was America, not Virginia, and what America could become through a strong union of the states. Learn more about his patriotism in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4617, Washington's Support for Civilian Government: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 4
George Washington strongly supported the principle that the military is subordinate to civilian government. Listen to learn more about his support for civilian control of the government!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4616, The Newburgh Conspiracy: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 3
Washington never lost sight of the fact that his authority came from Congress, and that the purpose of the army was to carry out the will of the civil government, especially with confronted with the Newburgh Conspiracy. Learn more in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4615, George Washington the Soldier: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 2
As a soldier, George Washington demonstrated enough courage and decisiveness to command troops during several military actions. Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4614, George Washington's Early Life: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 1
On today's podcast, we begin a short series on George Washington, who was perhaps the most influential leader in the creation of the American nation. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4613, Separated Powers and Parliamentary Systems: We the People with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 11
In the final episode of our series with Dr. Scott Casper, we ask him what are the strengths and weaknesses of a government with separated branches vs. a parliamentary system?

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4612, Objections to the Constitution: We the People with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 10
While the Constitution is now the respected foundational document for the United States, we ask Dr. Casper: What were the principal objections of opponents of the Constitution?

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4611, The Founders' Focus on the Legislative Branch: We the People with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 9
Why did the Founders spend more time dealing with the legislative branch than the executive branch? Find out in today's episode from the We the People Open Course featuring Dr. Scott Casper.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4610, The System of Separated and Shared Powers: We the People with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 8
In this episode, Dr. Scott Casper of the American Antiquarian Society assesses the system of separated and shared powers created in the U.S. Constitution.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4609, Election of the President by the Electoral College: We the People with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 7
In the third part of the video, Dr. Scott Casper discusses the final type of electoral process pondered by the Framers: the Electoral College. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4608, Election of the President by Congress: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 6
In the second of three parts, Dr. Scott Casper discusses the second type of electoral process pondered by the Framers: Election by Congress. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4607, Election of the President by the People: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 5
In the first of three parts, Dr. Scott Casper discusses the first type of electoral process pondered by the Framers: Election by the people. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4606, Designing the Judicial Branch: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 4
What questions did the Framers address in designing the judicial branch? Check out more interviews with Dr. Scott Casper in Unit 2 of the We the People Open Course, a free online course on the U.S. Constitution at Learn.civiced.org.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4605, Designing the Executive Branch: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 3
What questions did the Framers address in designing the executive branch? Check out more interviews with Dr. Scott Casper in Unit 2 of the We the People Open Course, a free online course on the U.S. Constitution at Learn.civiced.org.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4604, Designing the Legislative Branch: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 2
We are once again joined by Dr. Scott Casper in an adapted series from the We the People Open Course, available at learn.civiced.org. Today we ask him: what questions did the Framers address in organizing the legislative branch?

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4603, Factors for Designing the National Government: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 1
Today we kick off a special series adapted from the We the People Open Course, a free online course on the U.S. Constitution that you can find at Learn.civiced.org. We're joined by Dr. Scott Casper, president of the American Antiquarian Society. To start, we ask him: What questions did the Framers consider when designing the three branches of the national government?

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4602, A Just and a Lasting Peace: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 16
By the time of Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address on March 4, 1865, the Civil War was winding down. Learn more about his hopes for a just and a lasting peace after the war!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4601, Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 15
Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, given on November 19, 1863, recognized the central importance of founding-era principles to the meaning and destiny of America. Learn more about this famous address in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4600, Abraham Lincoln and America's Founding Principles: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 14
Abraham Lincoln tried to revive and renew political principles that defined America at its birth in 1776 throughout his political career. Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4599, The Thirteenth Amendment: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 13
While Lincoln justified his Emancipation Proclamation as an act of military necessity, he understood that a constitutional amendment was required to abolish slavery immediately and everywhere in the United States. Learn more in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4598, The Emancipation Proclamation: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 12
On September 22, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln publicly announced his Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. It warned the Confederate rebels that unless they rejoined the Union, a final proclamation would free all slaves within the seceded states. Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4597, Abraham Lincoln on Slavery: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 11
After winning the 1860 presidential election, Lincoln repeated his long-held opposition to slavery. However, he insisted that the federal government would not take action against slavery in the states where it existed. Learn more about this dissonance in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4596, Lincoln Takes Strong Action Against the Rebellion: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 10
Through his executive power, Lincoln took strong action against the rebellion, including suspending the writ of habeas corpus. This decision would face opposition and challenges in the Supreme Court. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4595, Suspending the Writ of Habeas Corpus: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 9
At the outset of the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln suspended the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, which is a court order directing that a prisoner be brought to court before a judge to determine whether that prisoner???s detention is lawful. Learn more about the implications of this action today!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4594, The Prize Cases: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 8
The Prize Cases, which came before the Supreme Court in 1863, posed a constitutional test of President Abraham Lincoln's use of war powers during an emergency. Learn more about the impact of this judicial ruling!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4593, Congress Approves Lincoln's Actions: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 7
Abraham Lincoln's andquot;Message to Congressandquot; on July 4, 1861, emphatically expressed the president's determination to defend the Union against the Confederate rebellion. He asked Congress to support his war-time policies and approve his mobilization actions.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4592, Lincoln Takes Immediate Action Against the Confederacy: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 6
When fighting began between Confederate and Union forces in April of 1861, Abraham Lincoln acted quickly and strongly. Learn more about the implications of his approach for executive power in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4591, The Civil War Begins: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 5
By the time Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated on March 4, 1861, seven slave states had seceded from the U.S. to form the Confederate States of America.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4590, Abraham Lincoln Elected President: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 4
While Lincoln would lose in the Illinois senatorial race in 1858, he would soon go on to win the U.S. presidential election in 1860. Learn more in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4589, Abraham Lincoln Opposes the Kansas-Nebraska Act: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 3
Abraham Lincoln briefly left politics after his first term as a U.S. congressman. But national controversy over the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act brought Lincoln back to intense political activity. Learn more about this historic act and how it kicked off Lincoln's presidential run.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4588, Abraham Lincoln Begins His Political Career: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 2
Abraham Lincoln was largely self-taught, having less than one year of formal education. Yet, he led a successful political career. Learn more about the beginning of this career in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4587, Abraham Lincoln's Early Life: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 1
Today, we begin a brief series on Abraham Lincoln, the sixteenth president of the United States. We start by mapping his early years, which began in Kentucky on February 12, 1809.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4586, Dr. Carla Hayden's Advice to Young Women Considering Public Service: Women's History Month, Part 31
Today, we close our Women's History Month Series with our final interview with Dr. Carla Hayden, the Librarian of Congress. Dr. Hayden shares her mother's advice on the benefits of public service.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4585, Dr. Carla Hayden on Becoming the Librarian of Congress: Women's History Month, Pt 30
Dr. Carla Hayden is the first woman and African American Librarian of Congress. On today's podcast, Dr. Hayden explains why she considers herself to be an "accidental librarian" and what being a librarian means to her.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4584, Dr. Carla Hayden on Resources from the Library of Congress: Women's History Month, Pt 29
On today's episode, we had the honor of speaking with Dr. Carla Hayden, the Librarian of Congress, who explains the resources available at the Library of Congress. Dr. Hayden is the first woman and African American Librarian of Congress.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4583, Advice to Young People Considering Public Service: Women's History Month, Part 28
Today on 60-Second Civics, Judge Mae D'Agostino provides her advice to young people considering a career in public service.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4582, Judge Mae D'Agostino on Barriers to Women Entering the Legal Profession: Women's History Month, Part 27
On today's podcast, Judge Mae D'Agostino, a judge in the Northern District of New York, speaks about her belief that "more opportunities will be opening up for women in the years and months ahead" in the federal judiciary and what steps women entering the legal profession can take to better assure success in their legal career.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4581, Judge Mae D'Agostino on Serving as a U.S. District Court Judge: Women's History Month, Part 26
On this podcast, we welcome a very special guest: Judge Mae D'Agostino, a judge in the Northern District of New York. Judge D'Agostino speaks about how she came to serve in her position, and what it is like to be the first woman sitting as a judge in many of the courthouses she has presided over.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4580, The Equal Rights Amendment: Women's History Month, Part 25
The Equal Rights Amendment was first proposed in 1923. Its ratification is still in limbo, with several states having rescinded their original ratification. It says, andquot;Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.andquot;

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4579, The Nineteenth Amendment: Women's History Month, Part 24
After decades of struggle, the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified in 1920, recognizing the right of women to vote throughout the country, but not all women would be able to realize this right.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4578, The Woman Suffrage Procession of 1913: Women's History Month, Part 23
One day before the presidential inauguration of Woodrow Wilson, roughly 8,000 women's rights activists marched from the U.S. Capitol to the Treasury Department to demand the right to vote. Although marred by violence and racism, the aims of the marchers would be realized 7 years later with the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4577, Mary Church Terrell: Women's History Month, Part 22
Mary Church Terrell was an African American educator, women's rights campaigner, and civil rights activist.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4576, Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin: Women's History Month, Part 21
Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin was a Native American activist, attorney, and advocate of women's right to vote.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4575, Ida Tarbell: Women's History Month, Part 20
Ida Tarbell was a pioneering investigative journalist of the Progressive Era. Her 19-part series on Standard Oil Company would ultimately lead to the breakup of the company.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4574, Ida B. Wells: Women's History Month, Part 19
Ida B. Wells refused to march at the back of a women's suffrage parade. She refused to leave a first-class train car and sit in the section reserved for African Americans. And most importantly she refused to be silenced and courageously reported on lynchings of African Americans, risking her life and facing down numerous threats.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4573, Susan B. Anthony: Women's History Month, Part 18
After her trial for having voted in an 1872 election, Susan B. Anthony explained to the judge the implications of her conviction: andquot;My natural rights, my civil rights, my political rights, are all alike ignored. Robbed of the fundamental privilege of citizenship, I am degraded from the status of a citizen to that of a subject.andquot; Today, women in Rochester, New York, cover her grave with andquot;I Votedandquot; stickers.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4572, Elizabeth Cady Stanton: Women's History Month, Part 17
Elizabeth Cady Stanton is remembered for her persuasive oratorical skills, the power of her writing, her tireless advocacy of the right to vote for women and reform of laws that kept men and women on an unequal footing.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4571, The Seneca Falls Convention: Women's History Month, Part 16
In 1848, about 300 activists met in Seneca Falls, New York, for the first convention in the United States devoted to women's rights. They discussed Elizabeth Cady Stanton's proposed Declaration of Sentiments, which mirrored the language of the Declaration of Independence.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4570, The Forten Sisters: Women's History Month, Part 15
Margaretta, Harriet, and Sarah Forten were three powerful African American campaigners for the abolition and women's rights movements. Harriet and Sarah married members of another prominent abolitionist family, the Purvises. Harriet and her husband Robert were involved in the Underground Railroad, and their home served as a refuge for people who had escaped slavery and as a meeting place for abolitionists.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4569, Lucretia Mott: Women's History Month, Part 14
Lucretia Mott was one of the most well-known, active, and influential women's rights and anti-slavery activists in nineteenth-century America. She was a persuasive speaker at a time when public speaking by women was frowned upon. Not allowed to actively participate in the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840 because of their gender, Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton resolved to organize the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention, the first women's rights convention in the nation.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4568, Sarah and Angelina Grimke: Women's History Month, Part 13
Sarah and Angelina Grimke were among the first women to speak out in public in opposition to slavery. They were condemned for speaking out in public to andquot;promiscuousandquot; audiences; that is, audiences composed of both men and women. This prompted them to speak out more forcefully for equal rights for women. They lived long enough to see slavery abolished and the right of African American men to vote recognized, but universal women's suffrage would not be achieved until 1920, although Jim Crow laws would make it difficult or impossible for African Americans vote until the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4567, Beginning of the Women's Movement: Women's History Month, Part 12
The movement for equal rights for women in the United States had its beginnings in the movement to abolish slavery. In both movements, women would encounter vociferous and sometimes violent opposition.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4566, Federalism and Limited Government: Democratic Norms, Part 5
Federalism and limited government are principles that ensure that the American political system protects liberty and natural rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness as outlined in the Declaration of Independence. Listen to learn more from Dr. Bose in this final episode of the series!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4565, Separation of Powers: Checks and Balances: Democratic Norms, Part 4
To ensure that no individual or institution would have too much power in the American republic, the Framers of the Constitution designed a system of separation of powers and checks and balances. Learn more about these important checks on the power of government in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4564, The Rule of Law: Democratic Norms, Part 3
What makes a democracy function is the premise that no one is above the rule of law. But what does that mean? Learn more from Dr. Bose in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4563, Civic Participation: Democratic Norms, Part 2
Civic participation undergirds American democracy. In fact, it is what makes American democracy thrive. Listen to Dr. Meena Bose explain this important democratic norm in this episode.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4562, Representative Government: Democratic Norms, Part 1
Today we start the first of our five-day series on democratic norms with Dr. Meena Bose, the Peter S. Kalikow Chair in Presidential Studies and Executive Dean for Public Policy and Public Service Programs at Hofstra University. In our first episode, Dr. Bose discusses representative government, which is a fundamental feature of American democracy. Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4561, Native American Women in the Colonial Era: Women's History Month, Part 6
Europeans were surprised that Native American women had so much power and influence, particularly within the Haudenosaunee nations. In those nations, women held political power within the tribes, appointing and removing chiefs at their discretion.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4560, Nanye'hi: Women's History Month, Part 5
Despite being known as the "War Woman of Chota," Nanye'hi, also known as Nancy Ward, was a Cherokee woman who would work for much of her life to ensure peace between the Cherokees and the Americans, while attempting to prevent the further seizure of Cherokee land.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4559, Elizabeth Freeman: Women's History Month, Part 4
Elizabeth Freeman, also known as Mum Bett, escaped slavery in a way that was unusual: she took her case to court. She approached lawyer Theodore Sedgwick with this question: andquot;I heard that paper read yesterday that says 'all men are born equal,' and that every man has a right to freedom ... won't the law give me my freedom?andquot; Appealing to her natural rights and her rights under the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780, she sued for her freedom and won.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4558, Ona Judge: Women's History Month, Part 3
Ona Judge escaped George and Martha Washington's household, where she was an enslaved housemaid, and made her way to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, where she eluded George Washington's determined attempts to capture her. She made a new life for herself in New Hampshire, marrying and having three children. Her side of her remarkable story survives because she gave interviews to at least two abolitionist newspapers.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4557, Coverture and the Colonial Era: Women's History Month, Part 2
A married woman living during the American colonial era would have lived under the legal doctrine called "coverture," where her legal identity was subsumed under that of her husband. William Blackstone wrote, "By marriage, the husband and wife are one person in the law: that is, the very being or legal existence of the woman is suspended during the marriage, or at least is incorporated and consolidated into that of the husband: under whose wing, protection, and cover, she performs every thing." This was governed by colonial law before independence and state law after independence. It would not change substantially after the Revolution in most states, but divorce and child custody laws would change.

About

CCE LogoThis site is brought to you by the Center for Civic Education. The Center's mission is to promote an enlightened and responsible citizenry committed to democratic principles and actively engaged in the practice of democracy. The Center has reached more than 30 million students and their teachers since 1965. Learn more.

Center for Civic Education

5115 Douglas Fir Road, Suite J
Calabasas, CA 91302

  Phone: (818) 591-9321

  Email: web@civiced.org

  Media Inquiries: cce@civiced.org

  Website: www.civiced.org

© Center for Civic Education