Lesson 35: How Have Civil Rights Movements Resulted in Fundamental Political and Social Change in the United States?


de facto segregation  Racial separation not mandated by law.

de jure segregation  Racial separation mandated by law.

civil disobedience  The nonviolent refusal to obey laws that citizens regard as unjust or in protest of specific public policy.

civil rights  The rights belonging to an individual by virtue of citizenship. In the United States, the term refers especially to the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution and by subsequent acts of Congress. These include civil liberties, due process, equal protection of the laws, and freedom from discrimination. See civil rights movement